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  • Physical Chemistry  (2)
  • DNA probe assay  (1)
  • Key words Dominant ataxia  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of reactions between 2-phenylethyl benzenesulphonates (2-PEB) and benzylamines in acetonitrile at 65·0°C have been studied; the mechanism was examined on the basis of the sign and magnitude of cross-interaction constants ρij and βij. In contrast to the reactions of 2-PEB with anilines in methanol, participation of the aryl-assisted pathway was negligible, with a strong indication that the reaction proceeds largely by an intermolecular SNi mechanism with a four-centre transition state (TS). The effect of substituents on the TS variation was in accord with the predictions of the quantum mechanical model.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The negative slope (ΔρY+ 〈 0) of the Hammett-type plot using kinetic solvent isotope effect, log kSOH/kSOD versus σ+, for methanolysis of 1-(Y-phenyl)ethyl chlorides is rationalized by an ion-pair mechanism in which a solvent molecule attacks the relatively stable carbocation formed in the pre-equilibrium.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Key words Dominant ataxia ; Trinucleotide repeats ; Molecular ; analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by degenerative symptoms in the cerebellum, spinal cord, and brain stem. Six different genes have been reported to be associated with ADCA, and the length of trinucleotide repeats of these genes is correlated with the age at onset and severity of symptoms. Although there are strong hereditary effects in these disorders, most of the studies carried out in heterogeneous populations and in small groups obscure the true incidence of these diseases. We examined the frequency of six types of ADCAs in 87 unrelated Korean patients with progressive ataxia and compared the results to the frequencies in other ethnic groups. Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2 was the most frequent hereditary ataxia (12.6%) and types 3 and 6 accounted for 4.6% and 6.9% of ataxia patients, respectively. Dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy was also found in three patients (3.4%). No instances of SCA types 1 or 7 were detected. These findings show the striking contrast to the white population and a difference from Japanese findings. Our results demonstrate that dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of Korean patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, and that there are strong hereditary effects in patients with ADCAs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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