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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key wordsPanax ginseng ; Lipid body ; Starch accumulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cotyledon explants from zygotic embryos of Panax ginseng produced somatic embryos on Murashige and Skoog basal medium without growth regulators. Somatic embryos developed directly from epidermal cells at the cotyledon base. Somatic embryos were always formed from the side of the cotyledon opposite to the one attached to the medium surface regardless of cotyledon orientation. The frequency of somatic embryo formation from the abaxial epidermis (66%) was much higher than that from the adaxial epidermis (12%). Differences in embryogenic response were likely related to cell structure. Abaxial epidermal cells were filled with reserve materials (lipid bodies), while adaxial epidermal cells were devoid of any prominent reserves. During germination, the reserve materials in the cells of the cotyledons disappeared rapidly. At the same time, the competency of somatic embryo formation from cotyledon explants declined rapidly to zero. Upon culture of the cotyledon explants (for somatic embryo induction), lipid bodies slowly disappeared, but starch grains accumulated prominently. Reserve materials disappeared after commencement of embryogenic cell division. During germination, lipid bodies rapidly disappeared, and chloroplasts developed instead of starch grains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key wordsPanax ginseng ; Cotyledon ; Adventitious bud ; Somatic embryo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cotyledon explants of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) produced somatic embryos directly on medium without growth regulators, with 89% of the explants forming somatic embryos. Cytokinin treatment greatly suppressed somatic embryo formation but stimulated the direct formation of adventitious buds. BAP treatment was more effective than the kinetin treatment for adventitious bud formation. Auxin (0.05 mg/l IBA) in combination with cytokinin enhanced adventitious bud formation, with the highest frequency, 40%, at 0.05 mg/l IBA and 5 mg/l BAP. Adventitious buds were mainly formed near the distal portion of the cotyledons, while somatic embryos were formed near the proximal excised margins. Shoots were developed from adventitious buds after transfer to MS medium with 10 mg/l GA3. Root formation from the shoots was obtained after the shoots were transferred to half-strength MS medium with auxin (IAA). When the plants derived from adventitious buds were transferred to greenhouse soil, 36% were successfully acclimatized.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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