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  • Cervical spine  (2)
  • Polymer and Materials Science  (2)
  • Class II A  (1)
  • HPLC  (1)
  • Knee surgery
  • 1995-1999  (7)
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Keywords
Publisher
Years
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Direct depth profiling techniques to date have largely lacked the necessary depth resolution to investigate interfacial phenomena of the order of the bulk correlation length (5 - 10 nm for a wide range of systems). Here we investigate the optimal spatial resolution and depth of probe that may be attained for composition  -  depth profiling of polymeric samples via nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using the 2H(3He, 1H)4He reaction. We find that the spatial resolution can be greatly improved by using a grazing incidence geometry of the incident 3He beam on the sample, and analyzing the emitted protons in a backwards direction. This results in spatial resolutions down to about 3 nm at the sample surface, compared to a value of some 7 nm or more previously reported in earlier studies when emitted α-particles were detected in the forward direction. At the same time the depth to which samples can be profiled via the backwards emitted protons may be considerably extended relative to the α-particle detection mode, when the 3He beam impinges on the sample surface at normal incidence (up to about 4 μm into the sample for incident energies of 1.2 MeV in the proton-detection mode compared to only 1 μm for the equivalent α-particle detection mode).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Mhc ; Class II A ; Cichlid ; Fish ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: tensile drawing ; morphology ; polybutylene ; terephthalate ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The concept of the drawing of a molecular network has been employed to derive a total network draw ratio from the combination of the two deformations occurring in the production of poly(butylene terephthalate), PBT, fibers by the consecutive processes of melt spinning and cold drawing. The mechanical properties of PBT can then be more readily explained in terms of increases in this total network draw ratio. However, the preorientation and crystallization that occurs in the melt-spinning process can occur at different strain rates and temperatures, depending on the wind up speed employed, on the extensional viscosity of the polymer, and on the variation of the extensional viscosity with temperature. Therefore, for polymers such as poly(butylene terephthalate), which can exist in two crystalline forms, the morphology of the final drawn fiber might be expected to depend on the first melt-spinning stage of the process as well as on the total network draw ratio. In this work, density, birefringence, mechanical measurements, and WAXD measurements, which have been made on the melt-spun fibers and on the drawn fibers, are described. Small differences in some of the drawn yarn mechanical properties at the same overall network draw ratio are related to the crystallinity and in particular to differences in the proportion of the α and β phases present in the drawn yarn. These in turn are related to differences in the temperature and stress during melt spinning and drawing. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 35: 2465-2481, 1997
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Subjective outcome measure ; Patient questionnaire ; Visual analogue scale ; Knee surgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei der Erhebung von Patientendaten kommt der Patientenselbsteinschätzung neben klinischen Befunden eine zunehmende Bedeutung zu. Zu den relevanten subjektiven Daten bei verschiedenen Verletzungen des Kniegelenks werden neben spezifischen Symptomen wie Schmerzen und Schwellneigung Einschränkungen bei Alltagsbelastungen und bei sportlicher Aktivität gezählt. Die subjektiven Beschwerden können in Form eines standardisierten Fragebogens mit einer vereinfachten visuellen Analog-Skala (VAS) (Kästchenreihe mit 10 Kästchen) gut erfaßt werden. Es wurde überprüft, ob die deutsche Übersetzung eines englischsprachigen Knie-Fragebogens ein valides Instrument zur Beurteilung von Kapsel-Band-Verletzungen des Kniegelenkes darstellt. Der VAS-Fragebogen besteht aus 28 Fragen. Zur statistischen Auswertung wurde ein Gesamtscore des Fragebogens ermittelt (VAS-Score). Die Validierung umfaßte eine Expertenbefragung über die Struktur des Fragebogens, die Überprüfung der Reliabilität, den Vergleich mit anderen Score-Systemen (Cincinnati-Score, Lysholm-Score), und die Ermittlung von VAS-Score-Werten bei unterschiedlichen Kniegelenkserkrankungen und einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe. Zur Beurteilung operativer Behandlungsergebnisse wurde der VAS-Score im zeitlichen Verlauf vor und nach arthroskopischer Meniskusläsion und vorderer Kreuzbandersatzplastik ermittelt. Die Fragebogenerhebung erfolgte für beide Gruppen präoperativ, 2, 6, 12 und 24 Wochen postoperativ. Für die Kreuzbandpatienten wurde der VAS-Score zusätzlich 9 Monate postoperativ erhoben. Unter einer Gruppe von erfahrenen Kniechirurgen (n=41) (Expertengruppe) beurteilten 85% den VAS-Fragebogen als nützlich für die klinische Anwendung. Die Reliabilität des Fragebogens war bei Gesundenr=0,86 und bei Rehabilitations-Patientenr=0,92. Bei Patienten mit chronischen Kapsel-Band-Verletzungen (n=209) war die Korrelation zum Lysholm-Score und zum Cincinnati-Scorer=0,88 bzw.r=0,91. Durch den VAS-Score konnte das Ausmaß der Funktionseinschränkungen des Kniegelenkes bei verschiedenen Krankheitsbildern wie Meniskusläsionen, vorderen und hinteren Kreuzbandinsuffizienzen und Knorpelschäden gut abgebildet werden. Der VAS-Score war jedoch nicht krankheitsspezifisch für bestimmte Läsionen des Kniegelenkes. Im zeitlichen Verlauf wurden mit Hilfe des Scores Veränderungen des Funktionszustands nach arthroskopischer Meniskusoperation und nach vorderer Kreuzbandersatzplastik entsprechend dargestellt. Durch den Vergleich prä-und postoperativer Scorewerte konnte eine Beurteilung des Operationserfolges vorgenommen werden. Der VAS-Fragebogen ermöglicht die Erhebung subjektiver Patientendaten zeitsparend, ohne Beeinflussung durch den Untersucher und quantitativ auswertbar. Der Fragebogen kann als einfaches Instrument zur Evaluation und Qualitätskontrolle von operativen Therapiemaßnahmen (z. B. arthroskopischen Operationen) eingesetzt werden.
    Notes: Abstract Patients' complaints on limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and sports are possible signs for various injuries of the knee joint. These complaints can be easily assessed by the patient using a questionnaire with visual analogue scale (VAS) responses. A German translation of the English questionnaire concerning knee complaints [4] has been validated and tested for clinical use. It consists of 28 questions. For the statistical analysis, an overall score (VAS score) of the questionnaire was determined. The validation included an expert evaluation on the content of the questionnaire, a test for the reliability, a comparison with subjective knee scoring systems (Cincinnati score, Lysholm score) and a test on VAS score results in patient groups with various knee injuries (discrimination of patients). For the evaluation of operative treatment results, the responsiveness of the questionnaire was tested in patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscus surgery and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The investigation was conducted prior to the operation, 2, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery for both groups and also 36 weeks after surgery for the cruciate ligament patients. Interviews conducted with knee surgeons (so-called knee experts) revealed that 85% judged the questionnaire as being acceptable for clinical use. The reliability of the VAS score for healthy individuals wasr=0.86. The reliability for patients in a postoperative rehabilitation programme wasr=0.92. The correlation coefficient for the Lysholm score wasr=0.88 and for the Cincinnati scorer=0.91. By means of the VAS score we were able to assess the extent of limitations in knee function in various patient groups with meniscus lesions, insufficiency of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and chondromalacia. However, the VAS score was not specific for a single knee disorder. In patients who had undergone partial meniscal resection and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, alterations in knee function could be adequately evaluated by means of the VAS score. When comparing the VAS score prior to and after the operation, an evaluation of the treatment result was possible. With such a questionnaire using the patient's VAS responses, subjective data can be assessed time-saving for the physician, without observer bias and submitted to statistical analysis. The questionnaire can be used as a simple and valid instrument for measuring the subjective outcome in knee surgery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Key words Ethanol ; Acetylcholine ; Scopolamine ; Hippocampus ; Microdialysis ; HPLC
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using the microdialysis technique and sensitive HPLC procedures for the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) and ethanol, we investigated the release of ACh in rat hippocampus after acute ethanol administration. Systemic administration of ethanol (0.8 and 2.4 g/kg i.p.) led to peak ethanol concentrations of 21 and 42 mM in the hippocampus, respectively. The high dose caused a long-lasting inhibition of basal ACh release by up to 33%. Local infusion of scopolamine (1 µM) enhanced hippocampal ACh release up to eightfold in the presence of neostigmine (10 µM), and this stimulated release was also inhibited after systemic ethanol administration (by up to 45%). The low dose of ethanol (0.8 g/kg) led to a delayed stimulation of hippocampal ACh release. A stimulatory effect on ACh release was also observed when ethanol (50–100 mM) was infused directly into the hippocampus or into the septal area, i.e. to the origin of the cholinergic septohippocampal pathway; thus, the stimulatory effect may be mediated by a direct effect on cholinergic fibres. We conclude that ethanol exerts dual modulatory effects on the activity of the septohippocampal cholinergic fibres, depending on the dose and the site of administration. It is suggested that the inhibition of hippocampal ACh release by intoxicating doses of ethanol may contribute to the well-known cognitive and amnesic effects of ethanol intake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Atlas bipartita ; Cleft atlas ; Fusion defect ; Klippel-Feil ; Cervical spine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le cas d'un patient ayant un syndrome de Klippel-Feil et présentant des cervicalgies après un traumatisme est décrit. Aucune fracture n'était trouvée, mais une fente médiane sur les arcs atloïdiens ventraux et dorsaux était constatée, ce qui représente un cas très rare d'anomalie congénitale.
    Notes: Summary A patient with the Klippel-Feil syndrome is described who presented with pain in the neck after a trauma. No fractures were found. Instead, a midline cleft in both the anterior and posterior atlantic arches was found which represents an extremely rare congenital anomaly.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Atlas bipartita ; Cleft atlas ; Fusion defect ; Klippel-Feil ; Cervical spine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient with the Klippel-Feil syndrome is described who presented with pain in the neck after a trauma. No fractures were found. Instead, a midline cleft in both the anterior and posterior atlantic arches was found which represents an extremely rare congenital anomaly.
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