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  • 1
    Abstract: Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations have emerged as a novel risk factor for heart failure and stroke but not for myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, most studies on MI were conducted in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the elderly. Evidence is unclear in subjects without CAD and for stroke subtypes. We investigated the relationships between FGF23 and overall major cardiovascular endpoints, incident MI, ischemic (IS) and haemorrhagic stroke (HS) in middle-aged adults without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. We used a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Germany, including a randomly drawn subcohort (n = 1,978), incident MI (n = 463) and stroke cases (n = 359 IS; n = 88 HS) identified during a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. Compared with participants with FGF23 levels in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had a 36 % increased risk for cardiovascular events [hazard ratio: 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.82] after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, patahyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, dietary calcium and phosphorus intake, and kidney function. However, sub-analyses revealed significant relationships with risk of MI and HS, but not IS. Compared with the lowest quartile, individuals in the top two FGF23 quartiles had a 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.45) fold increased risk for MI and a 2.61 (95 % CI 1.23-5.52) fold increase for HS. Increased FGF23 emerged as a risk factor for both MI and HS. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results and to identify underlying mechanisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25527370
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. RESULTS: Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (〉/= 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26193703
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