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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; EMPHYSEMA ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; NETWORKS ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DNA adducts ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENES ; TIME ; DNA ; AIR-POLLUTION ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; AGE ; REPAIR ; smoking ; leukemia ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; RECRUITMENT ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; WHITE BLOOD-CELLS ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; case-control study ; DETERMINANTS ; monitoring ; GSTM1 ; LEVEL ; ADDUCT ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; DNA damage ; DNA ADDUCT ; ABILITY ; GENDER ; OUTDOOR AIR-POLLUTION ; OZONE
    Abstract: Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of DNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants of adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were measured in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC investigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer (n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx, n 82), bladder cancer (n = 124), leukemia (n = 166), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths (n = 77) accrued after a median follow-up of 7 years among the EPIC former smokers and never-smokers. Three controls per case were matched for questionnaire analyses and two controls per case for laboratory analyses. Matching criteria were gender, age, smoking status, country of recruitment, and follow-up time. Individual exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentration data from monitoring stations in routine air quality monitoring networks. Leukocyte DNA adducts were analyzed blindly using (32)p postlabeling technique. Adducts were associated with the subsequent risk of lung cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.88-3.931 when comparing detectable versus nondetectable adducts. The association with lung cancer was stronger in never-smokers (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.06-15.42) and among the younger age groups. After exclusion of the cancers occurring in the first 36 months of follow-up, the OR was 4.16 (95% CI, 1.24-13.88). A positive association was found between DNA adducts and ozone (O-3) concentration. Our prospective study suggests that leukocyte DNA adducts may predict lung cancer risk of never-smokers. Besides, the association of DNA adduct levels with O-3 indicates a possible role for photochemical smog in determining DNA damage
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140979
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; LUNG ; EMPHYSEMA ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EXPOSURE ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; POPULATION ; RISK ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; leukemia ; BLADDER-CANCER ; ADDUCTS ; TOBACCO ; INDIVIDUALS ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; nutrition ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS ; protein adducts ; LEVEL ; ADDUCT ; AFLATOXIN EXPOSURE ; biomarker ; case control studies ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; INTERVAL
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure [i.e, 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb) adducts] were predictive of the risk of tobacco-related cancers and diseases. We did a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, involving 190 controls and 149 cases (incident cancer of the lung, bladder, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, leukemias, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths). All individuals were never smokers or ex smokers for 〉 10 years. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were analyzed in peripheral blood collected before the onset of the disease (median, 7 years). Overall, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher, although not statistically significantly so, in cases (as a whole) than controls. In the control population, high fruit and vegetable consumption significantly lowered the frequency of detectable adducts (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.025). Restricting the analysis to women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher in cases than controls (Mann-Whitney P = 0.036) and the odds ratio (OR) for the presence/absence of adducts was 2.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.18-4.981. Moreover, the association of adducts with the individual cancer types was stronger in women than in the whole study population, although statistically significant only for leukemias (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.20). The results provide some evidence that women may be more susceptible to environmental tobacco smoke, as suggested by their higher adduct levels. The most important finding of this prospective study is that, at least in women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts may help identify subjects at high risk of cancers related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16172219
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; LUNG ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; LONG-TERM ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; QUALITY ; REDUCTION ; BIOMARKERS ; PARTICLES ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; TOBACCO ; EUROPE ; HIGH-LEVEL ; HEAVY ; prospective studies ; bias ; LEVEL ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; methods ; POWER ; prospective ; prospective study ; NEVER SMOKERS ; CANCERS ; ENGLAND ; EMISSION ; plant ; nonsmokers ; GASES ; discussion ; OUTDOOR
    Abstract: Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods: We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results: The proportion of lung cancers in never-and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion: We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10-20 ug/m(3), whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m(3) would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5-7% is likely to be an underestimate. Overall, our prospective study draws attention to the need for strict legislation concerning the quality of air in Europe
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17302981
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