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  • LOCI  (3)
  • LONGITUDINAL IN-VIVO  (3)
  • 1
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; PERFUSION ; metastases ; CONTRAST-ENHANCED MRI ; MINERAL DENSITY ; LONGITUDINAL IN-VIVO ; FAT-CONTENT
    Abstract: Background: Etiologic and pathophysiologic role of functional bone marrow processes is not fully understood especially in the case of osteoporosis. Purpose: To investigate the role of vascularization and diffusion in rat models of osteoporosis through a cross-correlation between non-invasive in-vivo imaging and invasive ex-vivo imaging of bone, bone marrow, and in particular of microcirculation. Material and Methods: Osteoporosis was induced in rats by combining ovariectomy (OVX) with calcium and Vitamin D3 deficiency, or with glucocorticoid (dexamethasone). For comparison, controls underwent a sham surgery. In in-vivo investigations, animals (n = 36) were examined by volumetric CT (VCT) and MRI at 1, 3, or 12 months post surgery. Using VCT, bone morphology was monitored and relative bone density r within pelvis was extracted. With DCE-MRI and DW-MRI, parameters A (amplitude), Kep (exchange rate constant), and ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) were acquired for regions of lumbar vertebrae, pelvis, and femur. In ex-vivo investigations, selective histological sections of pelvis were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE stain) for quantifying vessel size and density or immunostained for collagen IV and alpha-smooth muscle actin to assess vessel maturity (SMA/collagen IV ratio). Results: After 12 months, decrease in DCE-MRI parameter Kep was found in all locations of osteoporotic rats (strongest in femur and lumbar vertebrae) while no significant differences were seen for parameter A and DW-MRI parameter ADC. Furthermore, vessel rarefication and maturation were observed on the histological level in animals with osteoporotic phenotype. In particular in the pelvis, the osteoporotic individuals (irrespective of the osteoporosis inducers applied) exhibited decreased Kep, significantly reduced vessel density, significantly increased vessel maturity, as well as statistically unaltered A, ADC, and vessel diameter. Conclusion: Changes in microcirculation but not diffusion in the bone marrow of osteoporotic rats are detected by DCE-MRI and DW-MRI due to vessel rarefication and maturation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23319721
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  • 2
    Keywords: BLOOD-PRESSURE ; HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION ; CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; NATURAL MENOPAUSE ; LOCI ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; BRCA2 MUTATION CARRIERS ; CELL-TYPES ; PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE
    Abstract: Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in approximately 70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two regions harboring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in or near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses identified major association with DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk ( approximately 6% increase in risk per year; P = 3 x 10(-14)), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure rather than DDR mechanisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26414677
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; COLON-CANCER ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; LIFE-STYLE ; MASS INDEX ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; METAANALYSIS ; VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; sex ; SCAN ; RISK LOCI ; CHROMOSOME 8Q24
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than a dozen loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Here, we examined potential effect-modification between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at 10 of these loci and probable or established environmental risk factors for CRC in 7,016 CRC cases and 9,723 controls from nine cohort and case-control studies. We used meta-analysis of an efficient empirical-Bayes estimator to detect potential multiplicative interactions between each of the SNPs [rs16892766 at8q23.3 (EIF3H/UTP23), rs6983267 at 8q24 (MYC), rs10795668 at 10p14 (FLJ3802842), rs3802842 at 11q23 (LOC120376), rs4444235 at 14q22.2 (BMP4), rs4779584 at 15q13 (GREM1), rs9929218 at 16q22.1 (CDH1), rs4939827 at 18q21 (SMAD7), rs10411210 at 19q13.1 (RHPN2), and rs961253 at 20p12.3 (BMP2)] and select major CRC risk factors (sex, body mass index, height, smoking status, aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, alcohol use, and dietary intake of calcium, folate, red meat, processed meat, vegetables, fruit, and fiber). The strongest statistical evidence for a gene-environment interaction across studies was for vegetable consumption and rs16892766, located on chromosome 8q23.3, near the EIF3H and UTP23 genes (nominal P-interaction = 1.3 x 10(-4); adjusted P = 0.02). The magnitude of the main effect of the SNP increased with increasing levels of vegetable consumption. No other interactions were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Overall, the association of most CRC susceptibility loci identified in initial GWAS seems to be invariant to the other risk factors considered; however, our results suggest potential modification of the rs16892766 effect by vegetable consumption.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22367214
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  • 4
    Keywords: DISEASE ; metastases ; MUSCLE ; DCE-MRI ; MARROW ; LONGITUDINAL IN-VIVO ; FRACTURES ; VCT
    Abstract: Angiogenesis is pivotal for bone metabolism and bone defect healing. Yet the role of vascularization in osteoporosis and osteoporotic bone repair mechanisms is unclear. Here we investigated effects of osteoporotic phenotype on vascularization during bone defect healing in a rodent osteotomy model using volumetric computed tomography (VCT), dynamic contrast-enhanced VCT (DCE-VCT), dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and histology. In 16 rats, 8 with physiological bone status (SHAM) and 8 with osteoporotic bone status induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in combination with a vitamin D- and low calcium diet, wedge-shaped defects were created at the left distal femur and stabilized internally by T-shaped miniplate. MRI and VCT were performed in all animals 6 weeks after this procedure. By VCT, relative bone density in the defect was evaluated. Using DCE-VCT and DCE-MRI, parameters associated with regional blood volume were calculated in the bone defect, vicinity of the defect, surrounding muscles and bone marrow: Amplitude A and exchange rate constant Kep (DCE-MRI, respectively) as well as peak enhancement PE and area under the curve AUC (DCE-VCT, respectively). In animals of osteoporotic phenotype, bone density within the osseous defect was significantly reduced as compared to SHAM rats. Vascularization parameters determined by DCE-MRI and DCE-VCT in the defect were significantly elevated compared to the adjacent tissues for both SHAM and OVX groups. However, comparing SHAM and OVX rats, no statistically different values were found by DCE-MRI and DCE-VCT concerning any determined vascularization parameter within the bone defect. Furthermore, parameters of vascularization were increased for OVX as compared to SHAM rats within the bone marrow although significant difference was only found for A. In a rat osteotomy model we showed that at the reparative healing stage, osteoporotic phenotype did influence osteogenic but not angiogenic response within bone defect as imaged by DCE-MRI and DCE-VCT. This study provides insight into the relationship between angiogenesis and osteogenesis during osteoporosis-related compromised bone healing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23522092
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  • 5
    Keywords: radiation ; MRI ; metastases ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; MACHINE ; LONGITUDINAL IN-VIVO ; VCT ; VOLUMETRIC CT
    Abstract: Purpose Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has the disadvantage of providing non-quantitative results for bone density determination. The aim of this study is to calibrate CBCT results by using an internal reference (such as muscle) for quantitatively assessing bone density. Methods We developed a new method using the relative attenuation ratio between two nearby materials (such as bone and muscle) for systemic error correction in CBCT that depends on the relative object position in the image volume. Phantom calibration was performed to calculate the acquired attenuation ratio in Hounsfield units (HU), comparable to the results from clinical multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). In addition, a small animal study with an osteoporotic rat model was evaluated to show the feasibility of this presented method to quantitatively assess bone density using a CBCT system. Results The phantom study results showed that the calibration process successfully corrected the systemic inaccuracy from CBCT, and the calibrated HU values agreed with the values measured from MSCT. In the small animal study, the quantitative bone densities assessed from the calibrated CBCT results were consistent with the results from MSCT data. Conclusion A practical method to quantitatively estimate attenuation (HU) values for bone tissues from CBCT scans that are comparable to MSCT scans is proposed. The method may improve the quantification ability of CBCT scanning without any additional hardware requirements.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23225074
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  • 6
    Keywords: MODEL ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; COMMON VARIANTS ; CHRONIC HEART-FAILURE ; CARDIAC REPOLARIZATION ; SARCOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; QRS DURATION ; PR INTERVAL ; TRPM7
    Abstract: The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain similar to 8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24952745
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