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  • LONG-TERM SURVIVAL  (13)
  • 1
    Keywords: POPULATION ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; UNITED-STATES ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; ACUTE MYELOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; UP-TO-DATE ; ethnicity ; CANCER REGISTRY DATA
    Abstract: The survival of younger patients with acute leukemia has improved in the early 21st century, but it is unknown whether people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have benefited equally. Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we assessed trends in 5-year relative survival for patients aged 15 years or more with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia divided by racial and ethnic group, including non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Pacific Islanders in the 1990s and the early 21st century. Modeled period analysis was used to obtain the most up-to-date estimates of survival. Overall, the 5-year survival increased from 31.6% in 1997-2002 to 39.0% in 2003-2008 for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and from 15.5% in 1991-1996 to 22.5% in 2003-2008 for those with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Nevertheless, among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, age-adjusted 5-year relative survival rates remained lower for African-Americans and Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Among patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, the increase in survival was greatest (from 32.6% in 1991-1996 to 47.1% in 2003-2008) for younger patients (15-54 years), and was more pronounced for non-Hispanic whites (+16.4% units) than for other patients (+10.8% units). Increases in survival are observed in all ethnic or racial groups. Nevertheless, among patients with acute leukemias, disparities in survival persist between non-Hispanic white people and people of other ethnic or racial groups. Disparities are increasing in younger patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Improvements in access to treatment, especially for minority patients, may improve outcomes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22929974
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  • 2
    Keywords: POPULATION ; TUMORS ; PATTERNS ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; TRENDS ; REGISTRY ; RELATIVE SURVIVAL ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; UP-TO-DATE
    Abstract: Population-based studies on ovarian cancer providing survival estimates by age, histology, laterality, and stage have been sparse. We aimed to derive the most up-to-date and detailed survival estimates for ovarian cancer patients in Germany. We used a pooled German national dataset including data from 11 cancer registries covering 33 million populations. A total of 21 651 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1997-2006 were included. Period analysis was carried out to calculate the 5-year relative survival (RS) for the years 2002-2006. Trends in survival between 2002 and 2006 were examined using model-based period analysis. Age adjustment was performed using five age groups (15-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75+ years). Overall, the age-adjusted 5-year RS in 2002-2006 was 41%. A strong age gradient was observed, with a decrease in the 5-year RS from 67% in the age group 15-49 years to 28% in the age group 70+ years. Furthermore, the prognosis varied markedly by histology, laterality, and stage, with the age-adjusted 5-year RS ranging from 25% (for carcinoma not otherwise specified) to 81% (for stromal cell carcinoma), reaching 46% for unilateral and 32% for bilateral carcinoma and reaching 82% for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I and II, 36% for FIGO stage III, and 18% for FIGO stage IV. No improvement in survival could be observed for any of the subgroups in the period between 2002 and 2006. Our analyses suggest that an improvement in the 5-year RS for ovarian cancer may have stagnated in the early 21st century and underline the need for a more effective translation of therapeutic innovation into clinical practice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22694826
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  • 3
    Keywords: HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; COLON-CANCER ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; RELATIVE SURVIVAL ; UP-TO-DATE ; EUROCARE HIGH-RESOLUTION ; EARLY 21ST-CENTURY ; GENDER INFLUENCES TREATMENT
    Abstract: Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is considerably higher in men compared to women; however, there is inconclusive evidence of sex differences in CRC prognosis. We aimed to assess and explain sex differences in 5-year relative survival using standard and model-based period analysis among 164,996 patients diagnosed with CRC from 1997 to 2006 and reported to 11 German cancer registries covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Age-adjusted 5-year relative survival was higher in women (64.5% vs. 61.9%, P 〈 0.0001). A substantial survival advantage of women was confirmed in multivariate analysis after adjusting for CRC stage and subsite in subjects under 65 years of age (relative excess risk, RER 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.90), but not in older subjects (RER 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.04); this pattern was similar in the 1st and in the 2nd to 5th year after diagnosis. The survival advantage of women varied by CRC stage and age and was most pronounced for localized disease (RERs 0.59-0.88 in various age subgroups) and in patients under 45 years of age (RERs 0.59, 0.72 and 0.76 in patients with localized, regional or advanced disease, respectively). On the contrary, sex differences in survival did not vary by location of CRC. In conclusion, our large population-based study confirmed a survival advantage of female compared to male CRC patients, most notably in young and middle aged patients and patients with localized disease. The effect of sex hormones, either endogenous or through hormonal replacement therapy, might be the most plausible explanation for the observed patterns.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23861851
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; UNITED-STATES ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; RELATIVE SURVIVAL ; CELL TRANSPLANTATION ; cancer survival ; UP-TO-DATE ; HEALTH-INSURANCE ; RACE
    Abstract: Survival for patients with multiple myeloma has increased during the first decade of the 21st century. However, it is unknown whether the improvements in survival have extended equally in all ethnic groups. Using data from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we assessed trends in survival and disease-related mortality for patients with myeloma by ethnic group, including non-Hispanic whites (nHw), AfricanAmericans (AA), Hispanics and people of Asian and Pacific Islander descent (API) from 1998-2001 to 2006-2009. Overall, age adjusted 5-year relative survival increased, from 35.6% in 1998-2001 to 44% in 2006-2009. The greatest improvements were observed for patients aged 15-49, for whom survival increased by + 16.8% units for nHw and + 14.4% units for AA, whereas improvement was less pronounced and not statistically significant in Hispanics and API. Excess mortality hazard ratios were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.33) for AA and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11-1.41) for Hispanics compared to nHw in 2006-2009. Although survival increased greatly for nHw with myeloma between 1998-2001 and 2006-2009, smaller increases were observed for people of other ethnic groups. Persistent excess mortality was seen for AA and Hispanic patients with myeloma. Ethnic inequalities persisted or even increased from earlier periods to 2006-2009. The results suggest that ethnic minorities may not have benefited from newer treatments to the same extent as nHw patients have.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23879201
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  • 5
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA ; CHRONIC MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; MARROW-TRANSPLANTATION ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; cancer survival ; UP-TO-DATE ; PATIENTS RECEIVING IMATINIB ; DIAGNOSED CHRONIC-PHASE
    Abstract: Introduction: The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has produced 5-year survival of 90 + % for chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) patients in clinical trials. However, population level survival has been lower, especially in older patients. Here, we examine survival of patients with CML in Germany and compare it to survival of patients in the United States (US). Methods: Data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database in the US and 11 cancer registries in Germany. Patients 15-69 years old diagnosed with CML were included in the analysis. Period analysis for 2002-2006 was used to provide the most up-to-date possible estimates of five-year relative survival. Results: Five-year relative survival was 68.7% overall in Germany and 72.7% in the US. Survival was higher in the US for all age groups except for ages 15-39 years, but the difference was only statistically significant for ages 5059 years (at 67.5% vs 77.7% in Germany and the US, respectively). Survival decreased with age, ranging from 83.1% and 81.9%, respectively, in Germany and the US for patients 15-39 years old to 54.2% and 54.5%, respectively, in patients 65-69 years old. Survival increased between 2002 and 2006 by 12.0% points in Germany and 17.1% points in the US. Conclusions: Five-year survival estimates were higher in the US than in Germany overall, but the difference was only significant for ages 50-59 years. Survival did not equal that seen in clinical trials for either country, but strong improvement in survival was seen between 2002 and 2006.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 6
    Keywords: MODEL ; DISEASE ; chemotherapy ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; OLDER PATIENTS ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; cancer survival ; UP-TO-DATE ; DISPARITIES
    Abstract: Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is more aggressive in Germany than in the United States (US) and differences in treatment may lead to differences in population level survival. Patients diagnosed with HL in 11 German states in 1997-2006 were included in the analyses and were compared to similar analyses from patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database in the US. Period analysis was used to calculate 5-year relative survival for the time period of 2002-2006 overall and by gender, age and histology. Overall 5-year relative survival for patients with HL in Germany was 84 center dot 3%, compared to 80 center dot 6% for the US. Survival was highest in patients aged 15-29years at 97 center dot 9% and decreased with age to 57 center dot 5% at age 60+ Survival for men and women, respectively, was 84 center dot 7% and 84 center dot 1% in Germany and 78 center dot 2% and 83 center dot 6% in the US. 5-year relative survival for patients diagnosed with HL in Germany was close to 100% for younger patients. Survival of HL patients in the US was lower than in Germany overall, but was comparable in older patients and in women. Population-based studies with longer follow-up are still needed to examine effects of late toxicity on long term survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24433418
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  • 7
    Keywords: Germany ; AGE ; RATES ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; UNITED-STATES ; PATIENT SURVIVAL ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; 21ST-CENTURY ; REGISTRY DATA
    Abstract: Background:Period analysis is increasingly used to compute long-term cancer survival, as it provides better prediction of survival of newly diagnosed patients than traditional cohort analysis. However, the patient population to which period survival estimates best pertain to and which should be described in a study is less obvious.Methods:Using Finnish Cancer Registry data on 23 common cancer sites, age-standardized period estimates of 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year relative survival were computed for each 2-, 5-, and 10-year calendar period in 1954-2003 and compared with survival estimates for two cohorts by means of mean, mean absolute and mean squared differences: a full cohort of all patients potentially contributing some data to the survival analysis and a restricted cohort of patients diagnosed in the period of interest.Results:In most computations, survival estimates for the full cohorts were on average closer to the period estimates for the majority of cancer sites. For 10-year survival, results were less obvious with respect to the mean difference. However, mean squared and mean absolute differences were smaller for the majority of cancers when using the full cohort.Conclusion:Our results suggest that the full cohort should be described in reports of period survival analysis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23361050
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  • 8
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; STAGE ; AGE ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; ELDERLY-WOMEN ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; UP-TO-DATE
    Abstract: Population-based survival studies of breast cancer patients are commonly restricted to age- and stage-specific analyses. This study from Germany aimed at extending available population-based survival data on further prognostic cancer characteristics such as tumor grade, hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/neu) expression. Data from the population-based Saarland Cancer Registry including female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2009 were included. Period analysis methodology and regression modelling were used to obtain estimates of 5-year relative survival and tumor related excess risks in 2005-2009. Overall age standardized 5-year relative survival was 83%. In addition to age and stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status were independent predictors of 5-year relative survival. Detailed analyses by age, stage, morphology, tumor grade, hormone receptor status and HER2/neu expression consistently revealed lower survival of patients with high grade, hormone receptor negative or HER2/neu positive cancers and patients aged 70 years or older. This high resolution study extends available population-based survival data of breast cancer patients. Particular efforts should be made to overcome the persisting large survival deficits, which were observed for elderly patients in all clinical subgroups.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23936237
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; ASSOCIATION ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; UNITED-STATES ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; OLDER PATIENTS ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; PLUS RITUXIMAB ; EARLY 21ST-CENTURY
    Abstract: Background. New treatment options and supportive care measures have greatly improved survival of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but may not be affordable for those with no insurance or inadequate insurance. Methods. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we estimated overall and cause-specific survival according to insurance status within 3 years after diagnosis of patients diagnosed with NHL in the U.S. in the period 2007-2011. Because NHL is a heterogeneous condition, we also examined survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Results. Survival was higher for patients with non-Medicaid insurance compared with either uninsured patients or patients with Medicaid. For patients with any NHL, the 3-year survival estimates were 68.0% for uninsured patients, 60.7% for patients with Medicaid, and 84.9% for patients with non-Medicaid insurance. Hazard ratios (HRs) for uninsured and Medicaid-only patients compared with insured patients were 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76-2.10) and 2.51 (95% CI: 2.36-2.68), respectively. Results were similar for patients with DLBCL, with survival estimates of 68.5% for uninsured patients (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.57-2.02), 58%, for patients with Medicaid (HR: 2.42; 95% CI: 2.22-2.64), and 83.3% for patients with non-Medicaid insurance. Cause-specific analysis showed survival estimates of 80.3% for uninsured patients (HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.62-2.05), 77.7% for patients with Medicaid (HR: 2.23; 95% CI: 2.05-2.42), and 90.5% for patients with non-Medicaid insurance. Conclusion. Lack of insurance and Medicaid only were associated with significantly lower survival for patients with NHL. Further evaluation of the reasons for this disparity and implementation of comprehensive coverage for medical care are urgently needed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25876991
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  • 10
    Keywords: LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; MELPHALAN ; prednisone ; IMPROVEMENT ; cancer survival ; UP-TO-DATE ; BORTEZOMIB ; INITIAL TREATMENT ; LENALIDOMIDE PLUS DEXAMETHASONE
    Abstract: Multiple myeloma is a chronic, incurable but highly treatable neoplasm. Recent population-based studies have shown improvements in survival for patients diagnosed in the early 21st century. Here, we examine trends in survival for patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma in Germany and the United States (US) between 2002 and 2010. Data were extracted from 11 population-based cancer registries in Germany and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database in the US. Myeloma patients aged 15-74 years with diagnosis and follow-up between 1997 and 2010 from Germany and the US were included. Period analysis was employed to assess trends in 5-year relative survival in Germany and the US between 2002-04 and 2008-10. Age-adjusted 5-year relative survival increased from 47.3% to 53.8% in Germany and from 39.8% to 53.2% in the US between 2002-04 and 2008-10. There was a strong age gradient with lower survival among older patients, which persisted over time and was more pronounced in Germany than the US. Five-year relative survival estimates for patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma below 75 years of age steadily increased throughout the first decade of the 21st century and reached levels above 50% in both Germany and the US, probably reflecting the increased use of newer agents in myeloma treatment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26123295
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