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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (3)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (1)
  • antibody  (1)
  • Exotoxin
  • Chemotherapy
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (4)
  • 1990-1994  (4)
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Keywords
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Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 13 (1991), S. 381-387 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Multidrug resistance resulting from expression of an energy-dependent drug efflux pump encoded by the human MDR1 gene is a major impediment to effective cancer therapy. Pharmacologic intervention aimed at inhibiting this multidrug transporter should improve existing chemotherapy of human cancer, but drug development has been delayed by the difficulty and expense of developing valid animal models. Using recombinant DNA technology, a transgenic mouse has been engineered whose bone marrow is protected from the toxic effects of chemotherapy by expression of the MDR1 gene. This animal system allows the rapid screening of drugs which inhibit the multidrug transporter and heralds a new era of using transgenic animals for pharmacologic screening.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a mutant cell line with a defective regulatory subunit (RI) for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Abraham et al: Mol. Cell. Biol., 7:3098-3106, 1987), and a transfectant cell line expressing the same mutant kinase, showed increased sensitivity to a number of drugs that are known to be substrates for the multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein). In the current study we have investigated the mechanism by which cAMP-dependent protein kinase controls drug resistance. We report here that the sensitivity of the kinase defective CHO cell lines to multiple drugs results from decreased RNA levels for the multidrug-resistance gene. Similar results were obtained with mouse Y1 adrenal cells. Wild-type Y1 cells had high levels of P-glycoprotein due to expression of both the mdr 1b and mdr2 genes, whereas the cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutant Kin 8 cells had decreased RNA levels for these genes. A Kin 8 transfectant with restored cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity recovered mdr expression, indicating a cause and effect relationship between the protein kinase mutations and mdr expression. No changes in nuclear run-off assays could be detected, suggesting a non-transcriptional mechanism of regulation. Wild-type Y1 cells are more drug sensitive despite having higher levels of P-glycoprotein than the mutant cells. This paradoxical result may be explained by the higher rate of synthesis of steroids by the wild-type Y1 cells, which appear to be inhibitors of P-glycoprotein transport activity. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The topoisomerase II inhibitor, VP-16 (etoposide), is an important component in many chemotherapeutic regimens. To cahracterize resistance to this drug, the human melanoma cell line, FEM-X, was selected in multiple steps with VP-16. To prevent the development of typical multidrug resistance, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, the tiapamil analog, RO-11-2933, was added to the selections. The resultant clone FVP3 is 56-fold resistant to VP-16 and cross-resistant to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) (9-fold) and VM-26 (27-fold). These cells are also two- to fourfold resistant to m-AMSA, daunorubicin, and mitoxantrone. FVP3 is not resistant to the P-glycoprotein substrate vinblastine, does not express the MDR1 gene at detectable levels, and does not show reduced 3H-VP-16 accumulation. Unlike other cell lines that exhibit resistance to inhibitors of topoisomerase II, FVP3 has the same level of topoisomerase II expression and activity as FEM-X. Using live cells treated with VP-16, band depeletion assays and KCI/SDS precipitation assays show that topoisomerase II from FVP3 is much less susceptible to drug-induced cleavable complex formation than is that from FEM-X. This difference in sensitivity to VP-16 is also detected using lysates from disrupted cells, but not with isolated nuclei devoid of cytoplasmic and membrane components. In addijtion, the topoisomerase li present in nuclear edtracts from FVP3 is not resistant to the effects of VP-16 as measured by: (1)inhibition of strand passing activity during decatenation of kinetoplast DNA, (2) drug-induced linearization of plasmid DNA, and (3) immunodepletion by VP-16. These results suggest that some component of the cytoplasm or cellular membranes, or a factor depleted from nuclei during their isolation, is responsible for the resistance to VP-16 in FVP3. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: immunoglobulin ; antibody ; mAb B3 ; protein engineering ; disulfide bond ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Fv fragments are the smallest units of antibodies that retain the specific antigen binding characteristics of the whole molecule and are being used for the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. These are noncovalently associated heterodimers of the heavy (V H) and the light (VL) chain variable domains, which, without modification, tend to dissociate, unfold, and/or nonspecific ally aggregate. The fragment is usually stabilized by producing it as a single chain recombinant molecule in which the two chains are linked by means of a short polypeptide linker. An alternative strategy is to connect the two chains by means of an interchain disulfide bond. We used molecular graphics and other modeling tools to identify two possible interchain disulfide bond sites in the framework region of the Fv fragment of the monoclonal mouse antibody (mAb) B3. The mAb B3 binds to many human cancer cells and is being used in the development of a new anticancer agent. The two sites identified are VH44-VL105 and VH111-VL48. (VH44-VL100 and VH105-VL43 in the numbering scheme of Kabat et al., “Sequence of Proteins of Immunological Interest,” U.S. DHHS, NIH publication No. 91-3242, 1991.) This design was recently tested using the chimeric protein composed of a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin and the Fv fragment of mAb B3 with the engineered disulfide bond at VH44-VL105 (Brinkmann et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:7538, 1993). The chimeric toxin was found to be just as active as the corresponding single chain counterpart and considerably more stable. Because these disulfide bond sites are in the framework region, they can be located from sequence alignment alone. We expect that the disulfide bond at these sites will stabilize the Fv fragment of most antibodies and the antigen-specific portion of the T-cell receptors, which are homologous. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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