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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (17)
  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (2)
  • United States
  • 1985-1989  (19)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The ratio of the fragment ions at m/z 122 and m/z 123 in the positive ion fast atom bombardment or secondary ion mass spectra of thiamine hydrochloride varies with sample preparation and experimental conditions. For all mass spectra that contained significant abundances of matrix (S) ions [S + H]+, the fragment at m/z 123 is the more abundant of the two ions. If [S + H]+ ions are not observed in the mass spectrum under the conditions selected, the ion at m/z 122 is more abundant. This correlation suggests that hydrogen transfer to the fragment ion occurs in the gas phase, with the composition of the ion-solvent cluster ions in the selvedge region being the key factor. The ratio of the fragment ions at m/z 123 and m/z 122 is thus an indicator of the extent of protonation in the selvedge, the region immediately above the solvent surface created by primary particle bombardment.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 122 (1985), S. 379-386 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Neutral amino acid transport was characterized in the pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, OC15. Ten of the thirteen amino acids tested are transported by all three of the major neutral amino acid transport systems - A, L, and ASC - although one system may make a barely measurable contribution in some cases. The characterization of N-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (meAIB) transport points to this model amino acid as a definitive substrate for System A transport by OC15 cells. Thus, high concentrations of meAIB can be used selectively to block System A transport, and the transport characteristics of meAIB represent system A transport. Kinetic analysis of System A, with a Km = 0.79mM and Vmax = 14.4 nmol/mg protein/5 min, suggests a single-component transport system, which is sensitive to pH changes. While proline transport in most mammalian cells is largely accomplished through System A, it is about equally divided between Systems A and ASC in OC15 cells, and System A does not contribute at all to proline transport by F9 cells, an EC cell line with limited developmental potential. Kinetic analysis of System L transport, represented by Na+-independent leucine transport, reveals a high-affinity, single-component system. This transport system is relatively insensitive to pH changes and has a Km = 0.0031 mM and Vmax = 0.213 nmol/mg protein/min. The putative System L substrate, 2-aminobicyclo-[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), inhibits Systems A and ASC as well as System L in OC15 cells. Therefore, BCH cannot be used as a definitive substrate for System L in OC15 cells. Phenyialanine is primarily transported by Na+ -dependent Systems A and ASC (83% Na+-dependent; 73% System ASC) in OC15 cells, while it is transported primarily by the Na+-independent System L in most other cell types, including early cleavage stage mouse embryos and F9 cells. We have also found this unusually strong Na+-dependency of phenyl-alanine transport in mouse uterine blastocysts (82% Na+-dependent). There is no evidence for System N transport by OC15 cells, since histidine is transported primarily by a Na+-independent, BCH-inhibitable mechanism.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated in vitro the effects of the electrical field produced by constant current on freshly isolated rabbit osteoclasts and on well characterized clonal rat osteoblastlike cells. At field strengths of 0.1 and 1 V/mm, the osteoclasts migrated rapidly toward the positive electrode, whereas the osteoblastlike cells migrated in the opposite direction, toward the negative electrode. Thus, different cell types from the same tissue can respond differently to the same electrical signal. These results have important implications for hypotheses concerning the cellular mechanism of galvanotaxis, and may also clarify the cellular basis of the clinical application of electrical stimulation of bone healing.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Liver regeneration is controlled by a complex network of interactions between hormones, growth factors, and a variety of hepatotrophic factors. Transient increases in cAMP in the early stages of liver regeneration that are necessary for DNA synthesis and subsequent mitosis have been reported; however, studies on the mechanisms that control cellular cAMP levels during liver regeneration, namely adenylate cyclase activity, cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase activity, and cAMP efflux from the cell, have been generally incomplete. In this study we have shown that although there are three peaks in intracellular cAMP levels in the first 24 hours after partial hepatectomy, the adenylate cyclase activity stimulated by glucagon, prostaglandin E2, adrenaline, and fluoride in vitro decreases with time. Kd and BMAX of hepatocyte glucagon and β receptors were similar to the sham controls. Our results are consistent with a mixed homologous/heterologous desensitization of the adenylate cyclase system. There was also a loss of cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase activity after partial hepatectomy. We speculate that even though the hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase system has been desensitized, the system retains the ability to respond to the transient pulses of the variety of hormones secreted after partial hepatectomy and thus raise the intracellular concentration of cAMP. The decrease in cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase may be necessary to prevent rapid breakdown of cAMP.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: cumulus cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of serum and cumulus cells during oocyte maturation in vitro on subsequent oocyte fertilizability and zona pellucida digestability have been examined. Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes were cultured 15-16 hours in medium containing bovine serum albumin plus varying concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS). When the serum concentration was decreased incrementally from 5% to 0%, resistance to chymotrypsin digestion increased accordingly in a dose-dependent manner. The zona pellucida digestion time for oocytes matured in serum-free medium was increased nearly 500% above that for control oocytes matured in 5% FBS. Also, fertilization was decreased as serum concentration was lowered; the fertilization percentage for oocytes matured in serum-free serum was reduced by over 90%. This loss of fertilizability was correlated with an absence of sperm within the vitellus following insemination of matured ova. Increasing the serum concentration from 5% to 10% had no effect on fertilization or zona pellucida digestion time. Serum deprivation, even for a short period of time, at the onset of culture significantly reduced the fertilizability of cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes and increased the zona pellucida digestion time. Removal of serum after oocyte maturation in vitro had little effect. The presence of an intact cumulus oophorus during maturation in vitro was important in the maintenance of fertilizability and zona digestability. These data support the idea that serum deprivation and/or removal of the cumulus cells during oocyte maturation in vitro results in an alteration of the zona pellucida that is manifested as an increased resistance to proteolytic digestion and sperm penetration.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 10 (1989), S. 371-384 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: human gingival fibroblasts ; statistics of directional data ; Ca2+ transport ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Uniform electrical fields have been applied to human gingival fibroblasts by means of uniform ionic currents passed through a thin chamber. Cells were observed to align in fields between 0.1 and 1.5 V/mm but did not display directed motion toward the anode or the cathode of the chamber. Statistical analysis of directional data was used to distinguish threshold levels of orientation at low field intensities, to quantify the dependence of alignment on time and field intensity, and to analyze differences between alignment of cells treated with the Ca2+ transport modifiers A23187, verapamil, and lanthanum. Alignment occurred at a steady rate and was dependent in a saturating fashion on field strength. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 had a significant inhibitory effect on cell alignment in applied electrical fields; however, the Ca2+ channel blockers lanthanum and verapamil did not have a significant effect on alignment.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: oocyte maturation ; follicular fluid ; mouse ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the putative maturation inhibitor in porcine follicular fluid on gonadotropinstimulated reversal of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-maintained meiotic arrest in mouse oocytes in vitro were assessed in this study. When cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes were cultured in a suboptimal inhibitory concentration of dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on oocyte maturation was initially inhibitory at 3 hr, but stimulatory at 6 hr. Supplementation of the medium with an ultrafiltrate of porcine follicuiar fluid (PM10-filtrate) completely suppressed FSH-promoted reversal of inhibition at 6 hr. Charcoal extraction eliminated this effect of the PM10-filtrate. FSH reversed the inhibition of maturation of cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes maintained by a high concentration of dbcAMP and suboptimal concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX), during a 21-22-hr culture period. However, the effect of a completely inhibitory concentration of IBMX was not reversed by gonadotropin. A component of serum was also found to inhibit FSH reversal of dbcAMP-maintained meiotic arrest, and this activity was removed by charcoal extraction. In addition, when oocytes were cultured in medium containing a suboptimal concentration of dbcAMP plus a low molecular weight fraction (〈 1,000) of porcine follicular fluid, porcine serum, or fetal bovine serum, a synergistic inhibition of maturation was observed. Experiments with highly purified gonadotropins revealed that reversal of dbcAMP-maintained meiotic arrest occurred only in response to FSH; neither highly purified luteinizing hormone nor human chorionic gonadotropin could mimic this action of FSH. Also, this effect was mediated by the cumulus cells, since FSH could not reverse dbcAMP-maintained meiotic arrest in denuded oocytes. Furthermore, elevating cAMP levels in denuded oocytes augmented, rather than reversed, the inhibitory action of dbcAMP on oocyte maturation. These data therefore suggest that dbcAMP- or IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in vitro is reversed by an FSH-stimulated, cAMP-dependent process mediated by the cumulus cells and demonstrate that a factor present both in follicular fluid and serum prevents this action of the gonadotropin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: cAMP ; purines ; developmental capacity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: It was shown previously that the frequencies of fertilization and pre- and post-implantation embryonic development of mouse oocytes matured in vitro were similar to those of oocytes matured in vivo (Schroeder and Eppig, Dev Biol 102:493-497, 1984). The present study determined the developmental capacity of mouse oocytes after they had been maintained in meiotic arrest in vitro by substances thought to be important regulators of meiosis in vivo. Oocytes were maintained in meiotic arrest for 12 or 24 h in medium containing maturation inhibitor(s), washed free of inhibitor, and cultured 16 h in inhibitor-free (control) medium to permit meiotic maturation. Four different medium supplements were used to maintain meiotic arrest: (1) 100 μM dibutyryl cAMP plus 1 mM hypoxanthine; (2) 4 mM hypoxanthine plus 0.75 mM adenosine (H + AR); (3) 300 μM dibutyryl cAMP; and (4) 50 μM IBMX. Parallel groups of oocytes were treated to the same experimental protocol except that no inhibitory compounds were used; eg, oocytes were cultured a total of 28 or 40 h in control medium that permitted the resumption of maturation. These latter groups tested the effect of extended culture of mature oocytes on subsequent development. Control oocytes were cultured 16 h in control medium. Oocytes were inseminated and subsequently assessed for development to two-cell and blastocyst stages. When oocytes were first cultured 12 or 24 h in medium that maintained meiotic arrest, development to two-cells in all groups but one were within 10% of controls (70%). The 24 h H + AR group was the one exception (47% two-cells). By contrast, culturing oocytes for 28 or 40 h in inhibitor-free medium resulted in a precipitous decrease in development to two cells (27% and 7%, respectively). Blastocyst development followed the same pattern. When uridine (U) was added to H + AR medium, development to two cells was increased significantly. Also, the addition of FSH to the maturation medium significantly increased both two-cell and blastocyst development in the H + AR and H + AR + U groups. Transfer of compacted morulae from the H + AR + U/FSH group into pseudopregnant hosts produced live young 19 days postinsemination.These data demonstrate that prolonged culture of oocytes matured in vitro decreased their capacity to undergo normal development following insemination, but if oocytes were maintained in meiotic arrest during prolonged culture and then allowed to mature spontaneously, their developmental potential was significantly preserved. These results also lend support for a physiological role of cAMP and purines in the maintenance of meiotic arrest in vivo.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: oocyte maturation ; hypoxanthine ; adenosine ; cAMP metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Hypoxanthine and adcnosine are present in preparations of mouse ovarian follicular fluid, and these purines maintain mouse oocytes in meiotic arrest in vitro (Eppig et al.: Biology of Reproduction 33:1041-1049, 1985). The first hypothesis tested in this study is that purines which maintain meiotic arrest act by maintaining meiosis-arresting levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphatc (cAMP) in the oocyte. Oocyte-cumulus cell complexes were incubated in control medium (no added purines), or medium containing 0.75 mM adenosine, 4 mM hypoxanthine, or both for 3 hr and the percentage of the oocytes that underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) and the cAMP content of the intact complexes and the oocytes were determined. Adenosine alone had little inhibitory effect on GVB at this time point but sustained higher levels of cAMP in the oocytes. Hypoxanthine maintained 80% of cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes in meiotic arrest and also sustained higher cAMP levels in the oocytes. The additon of adenosine to hypoxanthine-containing medium increased the percentage of oocytes maintained in meiotic arrest, and increased the amount of cAMP in the oocytes above that maintained by either hypoxanthine or adenosine alone. Neither hypoxanthine, adenosine, nor hypoxanthine plus adenosine altered the cAMP content of intact complexes when assayed after 3 hr culture. Microinjection of an inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dcpendent protein kinase induced GVB in denuded oocytes cultured in medium containing hypoxanthine. This purne, therefore, maintained meiotic arrest by sustaining elevated cAMP levels within the oocytes.The second hypothesis tested in this study is that purines maintain meiosis-arresting levels of cAMP, at least in part, by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiestcrase activity. In descending order of potency, 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX), guanosine, hypoxanthine, adenosine, and xanthosine inhibited cAMP phosphodiesterase in oocyte lysates. Moreover, like the potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, hypoxanthine augmented the cAMP meiotic arrest and cAMP accumulation mediated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in intact complexes. Therefore, inhibition of oocyte phosphodiesterase appears to be one mechanism by which the purines could maintain meiosis-arresting levels of cAMP.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: mouse ; oogenesis ; oocyte maturation ; cyclic adenosine monophosphate ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content of intact oocyte-cumulus cell complexes at various times after the induction of oocyte maturation in mice in vivo was correlated with the time of commitment by the oocytes to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) and metabolic coupling between the oocyte and cumulus cells. Seventy-nine percent of the oocytes either underwent GVB or were committed to do so by 2 h after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This occurred without a decrease in the coupling between cumulus cells and the oocyte and with increasing cAMP levels in the oocyte-cumulus cell complex. Maintenance of threshold levels of cAMP within mammalian oocytes appears essential for the maintenance of meiotic arrest, but data presented here suggest that oocyte maturation in mice is induced by gonadotropins in nonatretic follicles in vivo by some mechanism other than one which decreases the cAMP content of the intact oocyte-cumulus cell complex.
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