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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (17)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (2)
  • Exotoxin
  • Chemotherapy
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (19)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 91 (1977), S. 289-296 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The total membrane fraction of a chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) homogenate accumulates calcium in an energy-dependent manner. This activity can be dissociated into azide-sensitive and azide-insensitive components. The azide-sensitive component of calcium uptake is believed to represent mitochondrial calcium uptake. The azide-insensitive component of calcium uptake is enhanced by the presence of a calcium trapping agent such as oxalate, and cannot utilize, ADP, inorganic phosphate and a Krebs cycle substrate to support uptake. The distribution of the azide-insensitive calcium uptake in subcellular fractions suggests that this uptake occurs in other than mitochondrial membranes. The membranes most likely to contribute to the azide-insensitive component of calcium uptake are the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. A microsomal preparation from CEF cells is essentially devoid of the azide-sensitive calcium uptake activity. This microsomal activity is similar in characteristics to the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle. However the specific activity of CEF microsomal calcium uptake system is much less than that found in the skeletal muscle system. The transport of calcium by these membranes provide a mechanism for the regulation of cytosol calcium levels and may play a role in the control of movement and growth of cultured cells.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Verapamil, a clinically important calcium channel blocker, has been found to cause a 40-fold enhancement of killing of the human KB cell line by a cytotoxic conjugate of epidermal growth factor with Pseudomonas exotoxin (EGF-PE). Synergistic effects of verapamil and EGF-PE are also seen on HeLa D98 cells and a human epidermal carcinoma cell line, A431. Verapamil also potentiates the effect of a toxic conjugate formed between Pseudomonas exotoxin and a monoclonal antibody to the human transferrin receptor (anti-TFR-PE) and enhances the effect of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) alone. Two other calcium antagonists were tested. Diltiazem enhances the cytotoxic effect of EGF-PE, but nifedipine does not. Verapamil does not affect the binding and uptake of 125I-EGF by KB cells, but it significantly delays the disappearance of internalized 125I-EGF from the cells. Density gradient fractionation studies using cell homogenates suggest that 125I-EGF accumulates in an undegraded form in lysosomes when cells are treated with verapamil. By immunofluorescence microscopy using an antibody to PE, EGF-PE was found to accumulate in lysosomes; by electron microscopy the lysosomes had an abnormal appearance. The effects of verapamil on toxicity of EGF-PE and lysosomal function appear to be related. However, it is not known whether the enhanced toxicity of EGF-PE in the presence of verapamil is due to its delayed degradation in lysosomes or some more general effect of verapamil on membrane permeability.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mutants of the human KB carcinoma cell line resistant to a cytotoxic conjugate of epidermal growth factor and Pseudomonas exotoxin (EGF-PE) express a pleiotropic phenotype, which includes reduced levels of 125I-EGF binding, without altered affinity for EGF (Lyall et al., 1987). Here, the EGF-toxin (ET) resistant mutants were further characterized with respect to the amount and size of the EGF receptor and the level of EGF receptor RNA. These data indicate that decreased binding of 125I-EGF in the mutants is due to reduced amounts of EGF receptor, which is associated with decreased mRNA levels. Changes in other proteins in the ET mutants were also examined. Five of the six ET mutants had a decrease in a 78,000 Mr- membrane glycoprotein. In addition, an increase in a protein with a Mr- of 40,000 and a pl = 8.0 was found in all the mutants, and an increase in a series of proteins with a Mr- of 36,000 and a pl of 6.3-6.5 was found in some of the mutants. These results confirm the pleiotropic nature of the EGF-PE resistant mutants and show that reduced EGF binding is due to altered expression of the EGF receptor gene in the mutants.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 101 (1979), S. 101-108 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When calcium is removed from culture medium, motility of cultured cells is decreased. The effect is rapid, reversible and pronounced. Decreased motility is observed with normal mouse Balb/c 3T3 cells, mouse L929 cells, rat kidney fibroblasts and chick embryo fibroblasts. The calcium dependence of movement can be observed both with individual cells and with the movement of the margin of a monolayer into a wound. Magnesium will not substitute for calcium to maintain motility. Strontium will substitute, but is not as effective as calcium for maintaining cell movement. Low concentrations of the divalent cation ionophore A23187 (0.5-1 μm) partially reverse the reduced migration observed at low calcium concentrations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that movement of non-muscle cells occurs through mechanisms similar to those important in the contraction of muscle.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Membranes isolated from subconfluent cultures of Balb/c 3T3 cells have low energy-dependent calcium uptake activity. Replating confluent cells at low density results in a prompt fall of energy-dependent calcium uptake by membrane fractions. The level to which uptake activity falls is a function of the density at which the cells are plated (Moore and Pastan, '77b). To determine if regulation of energy-dependent uptake of calcium by membrane fractions is dependent upon attachment to a substrate and to further characterize conditions that regulate the process, we examined calcium uptake activity of membranes isolated from cells in suspension. With cells in suspension energy-dependent calcium uptake activity of isolated membranes falls promptly if cells are diluted to a low density (〈105 cells/ml) and is a function of cell density. When cells in suspension at low cell densities are concentrated to high cell densities (〉2 X 106 cells/ml), calcium uptake activity of the isolated membrane fraction is increased as a function of cell density. These changes of membrane calcium uptake activity occur promptly and do not require protein synthesis.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A serum-free culture system was established for human KB carcinoma (HeLa) cells that consisted of a chemically defined medium and several growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, and ethanolamine. EGF and insulin showed the greatest effects on the growth rate of KB cells. Insulin-like growth factor l (IGF-l) at the same concentration as insulin stimulated cell growth less than insulin. Transferrin, hydrocortisone, or ethanolamine had no growth-stimulatory effects alone but were stimulatory when combined with EGF and/or insulin. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibited growth and triiodothyronine stimulated growth. The growth factor requirements were established for several KB mutants with low EGF receptor levels that had been selected for resistance to a conjugate of EGF with Pseudomonas exotoxin (EGF-PE). Three of five KB mutants did not respond to EGF; two other mutants responded to a lesser extent than the parental KB cells. Four mutants had a reduced response to insulin and responded to T3; one mutant (ET-30) responded to neither. These results indicate that KB cells selected for EGF-PE resistance have lost their growth response to EGF and illustrate the usefulness of serum-free medium for studying the growth factor requirements of mutants with altered receptor levels.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: H20e12 is a mutant HeLa cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of a chimeric protein conjugate composed of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the toxic A cham of ricin (RTA). ET-28 is a mutant KB cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of a chimeric protein conjugate composed of EGF and Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). In this report we describe the presence or absence, in these mutants, of cross-resistance to the two toxic conjugates and the effects of ammonium chloride, leupeptin, and adenovirus cotreatments on toxin efficacies. ET-28 cells, the EGF-PE-resistant cells, are resistant to both EGF-PE and EGF-RTA. In contrast, H20e12 cells, the EGF-RTA-resistant cells, are as sensitive to EGF-PE toxicity as are their parent HeLa cells. Ammonium chloride cotreatment substantially reduces the resistance of H20e12 cells to EGF-RTA but has little or no effect on the resistance of ET-28 cells to either EGF-RTA or EGF-PE. Leupeptin has no effect on the toxicity of either chimeric conjugate on any of the four cell lines, despite its demonstrated ability to inhibit cellular degradation of EGF. In contrast, adenovirus cotreatment enhances the toxicity of EGF-RTA and EGF-PE on all cells tested, and completely nullifies the relative resistance of H20e12 and ET-28 cells to these toxic conjugates. H20e12 and ET-28 cells appear to be altered in distinct, possibly endosomal, functions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The topoisomerase II inhibitor, VP-16 (etoposide), is an important component in many chemotherapeutic regimens. To cahracterize resistance to this drug, the human melanoma cell line, FEM-X, was selected in multiple steps with VP-16. To prevent the development of typical multidrug resistance, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, the tiapamil analog, RO-11-2933, was added to the selections. The resultant clone FVP3 is 56-fold resistant to VP-16 and cross-resistant to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) (9-fold) and VM-26 (27-fold). These cells are also two- to fourfold resistant to m-AMSA, daunorubicin, and mitoxantrone. FVP3 is not resistant to the P-glycoprotein substrate vinblastine, does not express the MDR1 gene at detectable levels, and does not show reduced 3H-VP-16 accumulation. Unlike other cell lines that exhibit resistance to inhibitors of topoisomerase II, FVP3 has the same level of topoisomerase II expression and activity as FEM-X. Using live cells treated with VP-16, band depeletion assays and KCI/SDS precipitation assays show that topoisomerase II from FVP3 is much less susceptible to drug-induced cleavable complex formation than is that from FEM-X. This difference in sensitivity to VP-16 is also detected using lysates from disrupted cells, but not with isolated nuclei devoid of cytoplasmic and membrane components. In addijtion, the topoisomerase li present in nuclear edtracts from FVP3 is not resistant to the effects of VP-16 as measured by: (1)inhibition of strand passing activity during decatenation of kinetoplast DNA, (2) drug-induced linearization of plasmid DNA, and (3) immunodepletion by VP-16. These results suggest that some component of the cytoplasm or cellular membranes, or a factor depleted from nuclei during their isolation, is responsible for the resistance to VP-16 in FVP3. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a mutant cell line with a defective regulatory subunit (RI) for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Abraham et al: Mol. Cell. Biol., 7:3098-3106, 1987), and a transfectant cell line expressing the same mutant kinase, showed increased sensitivity to a number of drugs that are known to be substrates for the multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein). In the current study we have investigated the mechanism by which cAMP-dependent protein kinase controls drug resistance. We report here that the sensitivity of the kinase defective CHO cell lines to multiple drugs results from decreased RNA levels for the multidrug-resistance gene. Similar results were obtained with mouse Y1 adrenal cells. Wild-type Y1 cells had high levels of P-glycoprotein due to expression of both the mdr 1b and mdr2 genes, whereas the cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutant Kin 8 cells had decreased RNA levels for these genes. A Kin 8 transfectant with restored cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity recovered mdr expression, indicating a cause and effect relationship between the protein kinase mutations and mdr expression. No changes in nuclear run-off assays could be detected, suggesting a non-transcriptional mechanism of regulation. Wild-type Y1 cells are more drug sensitive despite having higher levels of P-glycoprotein than the mutant cells. This paradoxical result may be explained by the higher rate of synthesis of steroids by the wild-type Y1 cells, which appear to be inhibitors of P-glycoprotein transport activity. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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