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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (7)
  • Springer eBooks  (3)
  • 1
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biotechnology ; Microreactors ; Chemistry ; Biotechnology ; Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: Microfluidic techniques are becoming widely incorporated into medical diagnostic systems due to the inherent advantages of miniaturization. In Microfluidic Diagnostics: Methods in Molecular Biology, researchers in the field detail methods and protocols covering subjects such as microfluidic device fabrication, on-chip sample preparation, diagnostic applications and detection methodologies. The protocols described range from cutting-edge developments to established techniques and basic demonstrations suitable for education and training; from basic fabrication methods to commercializing research. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biologý„Ø series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. ℗ Authoritative and practical, Microfluidic Diagnostics: Methods in Molecular Biology seeks to aid scientists in the further development and commercialization of microfluidic diagnostic technologies
    Pages: XIII, 525 p. 143 illus., 58 illus. in color. : digital.
    ISBN: 9781627031349
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Pharmaceutical technology ; Biomedicine ; Pharmaceutical Sciences/Technology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Hydrophilic Matrix Dosage Forms: Definitions, General Attributes and the Evolution of Clinical Utilization -- 2 Design and Evaluation of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Matrix Tablets for Oral Controlled Release: a Historical Perspective -- 3 An Industrial Perspective on Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets based on Hyproxypropyl Methylcellulose (Hypromellose) -- 4 Natural Polysaccharides in Hydrophilic Matrices -- 5 Applications of Polyethylene Oxide (POLYOX) in Hydrophilic Matrices -- 6 A Formulation Development Perspective on Critical Interactions Affecting the Performance of Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- 7 In vitro Physical and Imaging Techniques to Evaluate Drug Release Mechanisms from Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- 8 Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling in the Development and Evaluation of Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- 9 Approaches to Rapid In Vivo Optimization of Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- 10 Extrusion: an Enabling Technology for Controlled Release Hydrophilic Matrix Systems -- 11 Microenvironmental pH Control and Mixed Polymer Approaches to Optimize Drug Delivery with Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- 12 Evolving Biopharmaceutics Perspectives for Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets: Dosage Form-Food Interactions and Dosage Form Gastrointestinal Tract Interactions
    Abstract: This detailed volume addresses key issues and subtle nuances involved in developing hydrophilic matrix tablets as an approach to oral controlled release. It brings together information from more than five decades of research and development on hydrophilic matrix tablets and provides perspective on contemporary issues.Twelve comprehensive chapters explore a variety of topics including polymers (hypromellose, natural polysaccharides and polyethylene oxide) and their utilization in hydrophilic matrices, critical interactions impacting tablet performance, in vitro physical and imaging techniques, and microenvironmental pH control and mixed polymer approaches, among others. In one collective volume, Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets for Oral Controlled Release provides a single source of current knowledge, including sections of previously unpublished data. It is an important resource for industrial and academic scientists investigating and developing these oral controlled release formulations
    Pages: IX, 326 p. 102 illus., 37 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493915194
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  • 3
    Keywords: Medicine ; Gastroenterology ; Nursing ; Oncology ; Pain Medicine ; Surgery ; Medicine & Public Health ; Gastroenterology ; Pain Medicine ; Oncology ; Surgery ; Nursing Management/Nursing Research ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781848821187
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell shape ; gene expression ; pleiotropic effects ; cell cycle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously described stable mouse C127 cell lines in which a CaM mini-gene has been expressed in a bovine papilloma virus-based expression vector (Rasmussen and Means: EMBO J. 6:3961-3968. 1987). Elevation of CaM to levels five-fold higher than in control cells caused an acceleration in cell cycle progression by reducing the length of the G1 period. When these cell lines were originally isolated it was observed that cells in which CaM levels were increased had a flattened morphology. In this study we have examined the localization of actin, vimentin, and tubulin in these cells as compared to the BPV-transformed control cell line in order to determine if changes in shape were accompanied by differences in the cytoskeletal organization. Cell-cycle-dependent changes in the levels of mRNAs for histone H4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-actin, vimentin, and β-tubulin have also been examined. Our results indicate that increased CaM causes differences in the organization of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules and that these changes are accompanied by selective differences in the cell-cycle-dependent expression of some mRNAs. Elevated CaM was also correlated with a reduced stability of β-tubulin mRNA. These studies indicate that CaM has pleiotropic effects on cell function and suggest that stable cell lines with altered CaM levels may provide a useful model system for understanding the moiecular basis of CaM-dependent regulation of cellular processes.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Spermatozoa ; Diploid ; Disomy ; Fluorescence in situ hybridization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes specific to chromosomes 17 and the X has been applied to human ejaculated sperm. After sperm nuclei were decondensed with EDTA and DTT, biotinylated alpha satellite DNA probes TR17 and TRX were separately used on preparations from thirteen healthy donors. After hybridization 96% of sperm were labelled with the TR17 probe and 48% of sperm were labelled with the TRX probe. Frequencies of 0.33% disomic 17 and 0.29% disomic X sperm were found. The frequencies of diploid sperm were assessed as 0.37% using the TR17 probe and 0.20% using the TRX probe which labelled only one half of the sperm; after correcting the result from the X-probe to 0.40% the two frequencies are very similar. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Sex chromosomes ; Human sperm ; Haploid ; Diploid ; Double fluorescence in situ hybridization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Double fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect sex chromosomes in decondensed human sperm nuclei. Biotinylated X chromosome specific (TRX) and digoxigenin-labeled Y chromosome specific (HRY) probes were simultaneously hybridized to sperm preparations from 12 normal healthy donors. After the hybridization, the probes were detected immuno-cytochemically, using two different and independent affinity systems. Ninety-six percent of the 12,636 sperm showed fluorescent labeling, of which 47.4% were haploid X and 46.8% were haploid Y. A frequency of 0.46% of XX-bearing sperm (0.28% disomic, 0.18% diploid) and 0.38% YY-bearing sperm (0.21% disomic, 0.17% diploid) was found. The overall proportions of X- and Y-bearing sperm in the ejaculates were 47.9% and 47.2%, respectively, which was not significantly different from the expected 50:50 ratio. In addition 0.21% of cells appeared to be haploid XY-bearing sperm, 0.62% were diploid XY-bearing cells, and 0.05% of cells were considered to be tetraploid cells. The application of double FISH to human sperm using X-chro-mosome and Y-chromosome probes has allowed a more accurate assessment of the sex chromosal complements in sperm than single FISH method and quinacrine staining for Y-bodies. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Cadherins ; Integrins ; N-CAM ; Fibronectin ; Myoblasts ; Myogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: N-cadherin, N-CAM, fibronectin, and β1-integrins have been implicated in the control of myoblast fusion to form multinucleate myotubes, a critical step in the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle. We have analyzed the temporal pattern of expression of mRNA transcripts encoding these adhesion molecules during the terminal differentiation of C2 mouse myoblasts. The accumulation of mRNA transcripts encoding N-cadherin, N-CAM, fibronectin, β5-integrin, and β1-integrin subunits was developmentally, but not coordinately, regulated. N-cadherin and integrin subunit expression was maximal in profusion myoblasts and declined thereafter. In contrast, N-CAM mRNA levels were low in prefusion myoblasts, and increased coincident with the onset of terminal differentiation. Fibronectin mRNA levels were also low in myoblasts, and they did not increase until after cell fusion had occurred. The results indicate that despite their lack of coordinate regulation maximal levels of mRNA transcripts encoding adhesion molecules are present at a stage which corresponds to the peak of the active phase of myoblast fusion. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 19 (1997), S. 819-826 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Steady direct current (dc) electric fields exist in many biological systems over many hours. At these times cells are dividing, differentiating, moving to final locations and extending motile processes. Each of these events may be influenced by physiological electric fields in tissue culture and when electric fields are disrupted in vivo, major developmental abnormalities arise. The likelihood of physiological electric fields playing a role in cell behaviours and some potential mechanisms are outlined.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Developmental Genetics 16 (1995), S. 20-24 
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: Cadherins ; ovary ; granulosa cells ; steroids ; cell adhesion molecules ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: N-cadherin (N-cad) is a calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule which is present in the granulosa cells of the mouse ovarian follicle. This cell adhesion molecule has been implicated as a key modulator of follicular development. The regulators of N-cad mRNA levels in the ovary have not been identified. We have examined the ability of steroids to influence ovarian N-cad mRNA levels in vivo. Immature mice were injected with either progesterone, testosterone, 17β-estradiol, or 17α-estradiol. Only 17β-estradiol caused a rapid and significant increase in the ovarian N-cad mRNA levels. We speculate that this steroid is a major regulator of N-cad-mediated granulosa cell interactions in vivo. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using a bovine papillorna virus-based vector, mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells have been transformed to express elevated amounts of functional calmodulin (CaM) (Rasmussen and Means, 1987) and another Ca2+-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV) (Rasmussen and Means, 1989) that is not normally synthesized in these cells. Parental cells (C127) and cells transformed by the vector alone (BPV-1), the vector containing a CaM gene (CM-1), or the vector containing parvalbumin (PV-1) were used to study the effect of increased synthesis of Ca2+-binding proteins on heat-stress protein (HSP) synthesis and cell survival following heating at 43°C. The induction, stability, and repression of the synthesis of most HSPs after 43°C heating was not significantly affected by increased amounts of Ca2+ -binding proteins, but the rate of synthesis of all three isoforms of the 26-kDa HSP (HSP26) was greatly reduced. C127 cells, which have about one half as much CaM as do BPV-1 cells, synthesized the most HSP26. CM-1 cells, which have more than fourfold higher levels of CaM than do BPV-1 cells, had a rate of synthesis of HSP26 approaching that of unheated cells. BPV-1 cells, with a two-fold increase in CaM, were intermediate in HSP26 synthesis. This effect on HSP26 synthesis may be largely related to the Ca2+ -binding capacity of CaM rather than to a specific CaM-regulated function, since PV-1 cells also showed reduced rates of HSP26 synthesis. Survival experiments showed that reduced HSP26 synthesis in cells with increased amounts of Ca2+-binding proteins did not significantly alter intrinsic resistance to continuous 43°C heating. Thermotolerance was not reduced and appeared to develop more rapidly in CM-1 and PV-1 cells. These results suggest that (1) the signal for HSP26 synthesis can be largely abrogated by elevated Ca2+ binding protein levels, and (2) if these HSPs are involved in thermotolerance development, that function may be associated with intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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