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  • 1
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1076-5174
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: methanogenic population dynamics ; anaerobic digesters ; solid waste ; biosolids ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in proportions that reflect U.S. production rates. The design organic loading rate was 3.1 kg volatile solids/m3/day and the retention time was 20 days. Ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to determine the methanogenic community structure in the inocula and the digesters. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate digester performance. The aggressive start-up strategy was successful for the thermophilic reactor, despite the use of a mesophilic inoculum. After a short start-up period (20 days), stable performance was observed with high gas production rates (1.52 m3/m3/day), high levels of methane in the biogas (59%), and substantial volatile solids (54%) and cellulose (58%) removals. In contrast, the mesophilic digester did not respond favorably to the start-up method. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids increased dramatically and pH control was difficult. After several weeks of operation, the mesophilic digester became more stable, but propionate levels remained very high. Methanogenic population dynamics correlated well with performance measures. Large fluctuations were observed in methanogenic population levels during the start-up period as volatile fatty acids accumulated and were subsequently consumed. Methanosaeta species were the most abundant methanogens in the inoculum, but their levels decreased rapidly as acetate built up. The increase in acetate levels was paralleled by an increase in Methanosarcina species abundance (up to 11.6 and 4.8% of total ribosomal RNA consisted of Methanosarcina species ribosomal RNA in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively). Methanobacteriaceae were the most abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens in both digesters, but their levels were higher in the thermophilic digester. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 342-355 1998.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A quantitative mass fragmentographic method for the simultaneous determination of labeled and unlabeled propoxyphene in plasma is described. Dogs treated daily with propoxyphene-d0 were treated with a pulse dose of propoxyphene-d2 at day 20. It was found that following an initial rapid equilibrium phase levels of propoxyphene-d2 fell more rapidly than those of propoxyphene-d0. This result suggests that ‘deep’ pools of tissue bound propoxyphene exist which exchange very slowly with drug present in the central compartment. Experimental evidence is presented which demonstrates that the difference in behavior of propoxyphene-d0 and -d2 is not due to unanticipated secondary isotope effects.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A mass fragmentographic method for simultaneous measurement of unlabeled and deuterium labeled methadone in human plasma is described. This specific method has a lower sensitivity of about 16 pmol/ml with a coefficient of variation of less than 4%. The usefulness of the method was evaluated in studies on opiate dependent subjects undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. In one application methadone-d3 was given as a pulse dose during continuous treatment with unlabeled methadone and plasma levels of both species followed by mass fragmentography. The method will be of value in the study of methadone pharmacokinetics in the steady state and in other in vivo situations where multiple drug pools must exist.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Microscopy Research and Technique 31 (1995), S. 267-274 
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Preparation technique ; Artefacts ; Sectioning-induced texture ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The methodology and one of the first attempts to produce transmission electron microscopic (TEM) specimens of nanocrystalline metals, alloys and ceramics by ultramicrotomy are presented. Samples of the pure elements Co, Pd; alloys of Y-12 at.% Fe, Al-7 at.% Ag and W-30 at.% Ga; and ZnO ceramic, were found to section successfully to varying degrees. Advantages of sections prepared through ultramicrotomy over ion beam methods include extensive electron-transparent regions of uniform thickness and absence of ion beam damage. Typical artefacts were observed (knife marks, tearing, pull-out, shear lamellae, section curling, and anodic dissolution) but did not impede TEM analysis significantly. A potentially important effect observed was that of a texture development upon sectioning of the Co and Pd samples. It is thought that this unusual phenomenon results from the extremely fine scale of the microstructure and the purity of the Co and Pd samples, and may be enhanced by frictional heating effects and the state of the knife edge. © 1995 Government of Canada.Exclusive worldwide publication rights in the article have been transferred to Wiley-Liss, Inc., in perpetuity.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A focused Cs+ beam was used to obtain secondary ion mass spectra and images from samples of stearic acid on gold before and after ablation by a beam of masive cluster ions. Ablation appears to have two effects on secondary ion emission. First, the number and intensity of peaks reflecting contamination are substantially reduced. Secondly, the absolute intensity of secondary ion current characteristic of the analyte increases. These features simplify mass spectra and improve contrast in the images obtained.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 3 (1976), S. 217-225 
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Through the combined use of stable isotope labeling and gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis, the metabolic patterns for propoxyphene have been determined in laboratory animals and man. The rat and dog eliminated propoxyphene and its metabolites principally via the bile, while the rabbit more closely resembled man in excreting the metabolic products into urine. Metabolites in rat and rabbit existed as conjugates, whereas in dog and man the metabolites were excreted as a mixture of the free and unconjugated forms. The primary route of metabolism in all species studied was N-demethylation. However, the rat and rabbit extensively hydroxylated propoxyphene and its metabolltes prior to elimination. Metabolites arising from ester hydrolysis were found in rat and man. N-acetylated products were identified in all four species. A metabolite formed from cyclization and dehydration of dinorpropoxyphene was isolated in urine and was further identified as a circulating metabolite in dog plasma.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Collagen fiber alignment ; Bone strain ; Biomechanics ; Calcaneum ; Talocrural joint ; Ovis aries ; Circularly polarized light microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Gebhardt (1905. Arch. Entwickl. Org., 20:187-322) originated the hypothesis that the direction of collagen fibers in bone is a structural response to the type of mechanical load to which the bone is subjected. He proposed that collagen fibers aligned parallel to the loading axis are best suited to withstand tensile strain, whereas fibers oriented perpendicular to the loading axis are best able to resist compressive strain. Research comparing load patterns with fiber alignment in bone have tended to support Gebhardt's hypothesis. The aim of the present study is to further test this hypothesis by assessing the correspondence between the distribution of strain and the distribution of collagen fiber orientation in a bone that is subjected to compound loading (i.e., both tension and compression at different phases during the loading cycle). The ovine calcaneum was selected to meet this criterion.Methods: Calcaneum surface strain distributions were obtained from experimental results reported by Lanyon (1973. J. Biomech. 6:41-49). Histological sections of the calcaneal shaft were prepared and observed using circularly polorized light (CPL) microscopy to determine the distribution of collagen fiber alignment. The observed alignment pattern was then compared with the predicted pattern based on Gebhardt's hypothesis.Results: Contrary to previous studies, our findings show no clear correspondence between the strain type of greatest magnitude and the direction of collagen fibers. Areas of bone characterized by high compression and low tension showed predominantly longitudinal collagen alignment (contra to Gebhardt).Conclusions: It is argued that even small magnitudes of tension operating on local areas of bone may be sufficient to induced collagen alignment favorable to this type of strain, even when greater magnitudes of compressive strain are acting on the same bone volume. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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