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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 30 (1991), S. 320-329 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: DNA ; DNA polymerase ; Cell multiplication ; Blastocyst ; Rabbit ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: DNA content and DNA polymerase activity were measured on rabbit blastocysts removed from the uterus at 24-hr intervals over the period of days 4-7 postcoitum (pc). Median DNA content increased 53 times over the 72-hr period, from 25.3 ng on day 4 to 1,360 ng on day 7. Median DNA polymerase activity (fmole of radiolabeled nucleotide incorporated in 30 min at 37°C) increased 393-fold from day 4 to day 7: 32.8 to 12,900. These embryos also increased in surface area and volume by34-fold and 6,078-fold, respectively. Litters containing individuals with high DNA content also tended to have similar individuals with high DNA polymerase activity. Therefore, DNA polymerase activity may be a useful measure of the potential for the next cell division. A large amount of variation existed between blastocysts in all parameters measured. An analysis of variance, conducted to partition variation between litters and within litters, determined that within-litter variation was actually greater than that between litters, resulting in intraclass correlation coefficients less than 0.5. There was also a positive regression of DNA content and DNA polymerase activity on surface area in 6- and 7-day-old blastocysts after eliminating variation attributable to litters. The developmental pattern of DNA polymerase activity in the rabbit may be quantitatively different from that described in the mouse. The pattern in mammals is very different from that described in several nonmammalian species.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament ; Autograft ; Mechanical properties ; Graft fixation ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mechanical properties of fascia lata autografts used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the goat were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The ACL was replaced in the right knee of 50 animals divided equally into two groups according to graft fixation technique: (a) two smooth staples at each end, with the tissue pulled back toward the joint over the first staple and (b) reinforced fixation with a spiked bushing placed through the tissue and a 3-cm-long flat polypropylene braid sutured to each end of the graft. Eleven unoperated contralateral knees were tested as controls. All statistically significant effects of the reinforced versus staple fixation were observed at 0 weeks, with the reinforced group showing less anteroposterior (AP) translation of the joint and greater maximum force and stiffness of the femurgraft-tibia units. The reinforced group had increased AP translation and decreased strength and stiffness by 2 weeks after surgery. Increased AP translation resulted primarily from increases in the low-stiffness region of the forcedisplacement curve (primary AP translation) and to a lesser extent from increased translation in the high-stiffness region (secondary anterior translation). Failures at 0 weeks with the reinforced fixation occurred at the bushing or end of the reinforcing braid, while all but one of the later failures occurred in the tissue mid-substance. In the staple group, maximum force was greater at 8 weeks than at 0 weeks, as the failure locations changed from the fixation to the tissue mid-substance. The failure mechanisms and maximum force values in the reinforced fixation group suggest that the remodeling tissue weakened rapidly after surgery.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Patellar tendon ; Anterior cruciate ligament replacement ; Mechanical properties ; Primates ; Cynomolgus monkey ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mechanical properties of patellar tendon autografts used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the cynomolgus monkey were measured at four time periods up to 1 year. The ACL was replaced in each knee with the medial half of the patellar tendon: as a vascularized graft (VG) on one side and as a nonvascularized or free graft (FG) on the other. Postoperative care consisted of 4 weeks of cast immobilization at 30° flexion followed by unrestricted activity in a large cage. Both grafts showed low stiffness and maximum force at 7 weeks (24% and 16% of ACL control values, respectively), increasing to 57% of control ACL stiffness and 39% of control maximum force by 1 year. Corresponding material properties, modulus and maximum stress, also increased over time, but at 1 year were only 34% and 26% of ACL values, respectively. The results indicate that retaining vascularity does not prevent significant reduction in graft properties that occur postoperatively, nor does it accelerate the return in strength and stiffness. Tissue stiffness, which returns earlier than maximum force and joint anteroposterior (AP) force displacement data, should be routinely reported in any healing study. Finally, in studies of this kind, the large variation in the results makes sampling only one or two animals from each time period unreliable.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The black carpet beetle, Attagenus megatoma (Fab.), has been reported to exhibit negative phototaxis immediately after emergence. In later adult life, after the period during which most oviposition has occurred, the beetles are found to be photopositive. The compound eyes of one-day-old (Post-emergence) and nine-day-old (Post-ovipositional) female beetles were studied by electron microscopy and a number of strong differences were found between eyes at the two ages. The corneal facets of one-day eyes had the form of convex-concave lenses, while those of nine-day beetles were double-convex lenses. The primary and secondary pigment cells of young eyes were large and contained much endoplasmic reticulum and little accessory pigment. In the older eyes the pigment cells were reduced and contained much pigment, the proportion of endoplasmic reticulum being greatly reduced by comparison with the one-day eye. The cross-sectional area of the rhabdom was greater in the older eye.The possible relationships between age-related changes in eye morphology and behavioral changes during the same period are discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 117-135 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Retinal projections were studied experimentally in the Northern water snake using modifications of the Nauta silver impregnation technique. Contralaterally, the retina projects to nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis and pars ventralis, nucleus lentiformis mesencephali and nucleus geniculatus pretectalis. A sparse projection was also observed to nucleus ovalis. An additional afferent thalamic projection to nucleus ventrolateralis was found in two cases. The retina projects ipsilaterally to the dorsolateral portion of nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis, and sparsely to nucleus lentiformis mesencephali and nucleus geniculatus pretectalis. Nucleus posterodorsalis receives dense bilateral retinal projections. Contralaterally, the retina also projects to the superficial layers of the tectum (layers 8-13 of Ramón) and to nucleus opticus tegmenti. Armstrong's findings that the retinal projections in Natrix are qualittatively similar to those in lizards were confirmed. However there are marked quantitative differences among the various pathways and their corresponding nuclei. These differences are particularly striking in comparing the visual projections to the dorsal thalamus, the retino-tecto-rotundal and the retino-geniculate systems. The first is reduced in volume and the second is markedly increased in volume in comparison with lizards. These data lend support to the theories of Walls that snakes evolved from fossorial lizards and of Underwood that the eyes of these lizards underwent reduction but not complete degeneration. Qualitatively the retinal projections are conservative among lizards and snakes, but a history of reduction of these pathways in ancestral snakes with a selective increase in the retino-geniculate system as a surface niche was reattained is reflected in the anatomy of this ophidian visual system.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: HMW ; LMW ; minor cartilage collagens ; chain composition ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In previous experiments, two collagenous fragments were isolated from pepsin digests of chicken hyaline cartilage and called the high molecular weight. (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fractions [3]. In the present experiments, the chains of LMW were isolated after denaturation and subsequent reduction and alkylation of interchain disulfide bridges and were further fractionated by carboxymethyl-cellulose chromatography. Four peaks were resolved during chromatography and were designated LMW 1, 2A, 2B, and 3. Amino acid analyses and peptide mapping after cleavage with trypsin, V8 protease, and cyanogen bromide showed that three genetically distinct chains must be present in LMW. Fractions 2A and 2B were very similar, but not identical, in structure. LMW 1, 2A plus 2B, and 3 were consistently isolated in approximately equal proportions, suggesting that the probable chain organization of LMW is [1][2A + 2B][3]. This suggestion was supported further by experiments that attempted to fractionate LMW by carboxymethyl-cellulose chromatography after denaturation but without reduction and alkylation of interchain disulfide bridges. No fractionation of LMW was achieved, the single peak subsequently being shown to contain LMW 1, 2A plus 2B, and 3.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 140 (1974), S. 339-347 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Formation of the myelin sheath in peripheral nerve of the newborn rat is compared with its formation in postnatal cerebral white matter. The unmyelinated central axon is bare and myelination begins by the spiral wrapping of an oligodendrocytic process around the axon. The paired membranes of this process fuse on their inside surfaces, lengthen, and spiral around the axon to make a loose sheath of major dense lines. Compact myelin results after fusion of the outside surfaces to form the intraperiod line. Cytoplasm is sparse in developing central myelin, usually being restricted to inner and outer tongues.Unmyelinated peripheral axons are enclosed within a mesaxon formed by the invagination and fusion of the outside surfaces of the Schwann cell plasma membranes. Loose myelin is produced by lengthening and spiralling of the mesaxon (intraperiod line) around the axon. As Schwann cell cytoplasm is extruded from between the spirals, the major dense line forms and compact myelin results. Trapped cytoplasm, a characteristic of developing peripheral myelin, is found in the internodal compact myelin sheath as the inner and outer collars and the Schmidt-Lanterman clefts.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 84 (1942), S. 407-413 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 146 (1975), S. 215-227 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dendritic patterns of cells in the optic tectum of the tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus, were analyzed with the Ramon-Moliner modification of the Golgi-Cox technique. Cell types were compared with those described by other authors in the tectum of other reptiles; particular comparisons of our results were made with the description of cell types in the chameleon (Ramón, 1896), as the latter is the most complete analysis in the literature. The periventricular gray layers 3 and 5 consist primarily of two cell types  -  piriform or pyramidal shaped cells and horizontal cells. Cells in the medial portion of the tectum, in an area coextensive with the bilateral spinal projection zone, possess dendrites that extend across the midline. The latter cells have either fusiform or pyramidal shaped somas. The central white zone, layer 6, contains fibers, large fusiform or pyramidal shaped cells, fusiform cells, and small horizontal cells. The central gray zone, layer 7, is composed predominantly of fusiform cells which have dendrites extending to the superficial optic layers, large polygonal cells, and horizontal cells. The superficial gray and white layers, layers 8-13, contain polygonal, fusiform, stellate, and horizontal elements. Layer 14 is composed solely of afferent optic tract fibers.Several differences in the occurrence and distribution of cell types between the tegu and the other reptiles studied are noted. Additionally, the laminar distribution of retinal, tectotectal, telencephalic, and spinal projections in the tegutectum can be related to the distribution of cell types, and those cells which may be postsynaptic to specific inputs can be identified. The highly differentiated laminar structure of the reptilian optic tectum, both in regard to cell type and to afferent and efferent connections, may serve as a model for studying some functional properties of lamination common to cortical structures.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 155 (1978), S. 271-285 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The micro-anatomy of the corpuscles of Stannius of the toadfish, Opsanus tau, an aglomerular marine teleost, has been studied by light and electron microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of extensively anastomosed cords of epithelial cells which maintain intimate contact with blood capillaries. Most of the epithelial cells contain acidophilic granules which also show a positive reaction with the periodic acid-Schiff technique and aldehyde fuchsin. On the basis of fine structural criteria, three cell types can be recognized. The granular cells contain abundant quantities of granular endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus with prosecretory granules, coated vesicles, polymorphic mitochondria with lamellar cristae, filaments, microtubules, a cilium, a variety of lysosome-like dense bodies, glycogen particles, lipid droplets, secretory granules and intranuclear lipid-like inclusions. One variety of agranular cell (type I) is characterized by the total absence of secretory granules, but it contains large amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes, conspicuous profiles of Golgi apparatus, coated vesicles and sometimes an abundance of glycogen. Another variety of agranular cell (type II) has poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles. The perivascular space between the capillary and parenchyma contains connective tissue cells and abundant nerve fibers. The different types of epithelial cells observed in the corpuscles of Stannius of this fish may represent functional stages of the secretory cycle in a single cell type.
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