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  • 1
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Modulation ; Interfaces ; Order ; Analytical electron microscopy ; Atom probe field-ion microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: A comparison of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM) is presented with respect to the interpretation of complex microstructures, phase identification, determination of crystallographic order, and analysis of interfaces. The capabilities, spatial resolutions, and limitations of each technique are discussed with examples taken from combined analytical electron microscopy (AEM) and APFIM studies. Both techniques are extremely powerful for routine characterization of a wide range of materials, although care must be exercised in experimentation and interpretation. The combined use of TEM and APFIM is synergistic and extends their individual capabilities from the macro scale to the atomic level.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Morphometric analyses of liver parenchymal cells were performed on male albino rats fed a semipurified diet supplemented with two levels of copper and zinc. These metals were administered in demineralized drinking water to four groups of animals at two levels. (1) 0.25 μgm Cu/ml, 2.5 μgm Zn/ml, and (2) 1.0 μgm Cu/ml, 10 μgm Zn/ml. Cadmium, also administered in the drinking water daily to rats at 17.2 μgm cadmium/ml, was given to one group of animals on each of the two semipurified diets. Two groups of rats were given laboratory chow plus 17.2 μgm Cd/ml for 71 days and for 280 days.Volume densities of all organelles diminished significantly when levels of copper and zinc were lowest. Surface densities of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum were significantly decreased.Higher levels of copper and zinc produced morphologic and morphometric parameters which fell just below those obtained for rats fed chow. Glycogen accumulation was highest when the levels of metal were low. Lipid inclusions were more frequent with semipurified diets than with chow.Hepatocytes from rats fed the semipurified diet with low copper and zinc plus cadmium demonstrated a significant increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum compared to animals fed the semipurified diet alone. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum changed little when cadmium was given to rats receiving adequate copper and zinc. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum increased when diets included chow and cadmium whereas rough endoplasmic reticulum decreased.Cup-shaped and elongated mitochondria with longitudinal cristae appeared in hepatocytes from animals fed chow with cadmium. These were not seen with semipurified diets and cadmium.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 3 (1982), S. 443-451 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: miniature swine ; ELF ; 60-Hz electric field ; behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that rats, given the choice, will spend more time out of a 60-Hz electric field than in it at field strengths ≥ 75 kV/m. This paper describes research to examine the relevance of these data to a different species, the pig. Miniature pigs that had been exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 30 kV/m for 20 h/day, 7 days/week for as long as 6 months, were tested for their preference for the presence or absence of the field during a 23.5-h period. Similar to earlier results with rats, miniature pigs spent more time out of the electric field than in it during the sleeping period.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; ELF ; 60 Hz ; guinea pig ; dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Short-circuit currents, surface electric fields, and axial current densities were measured in electrically grounded guinea pigs exposed to a uniform, vertical, ELF electric field. These data are 70-110% of corresponding values obtained in grounded rats exposed to the same electric field.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: ELF ; magnetic fields ; exposure systems ; biological effects ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Magnetic field systems were added to existing electric field exposure apparatuses for exposing cell suspensions in vitro and small animals in vivo. Two horizontally oriented, rectangular coils, stacked one directly above the other, have opposite electric currents. This configuration minimizes leakage fields and allows sham- and field-exposure systems to be placed in the same room or incubator. For the in vitro system, copper plates formed the loop-pair, with up to 900 A supplied by a 180:1 transformer. Electric fields were supplied via electrodes at the ends of cell-culture tubes, eight of which can be accommodated by each exposure system. Two complete systems are situated in an incubator to allow simultaneous sham and field exposure up to 1 mT. For the in vivo system, four pairs of 0.8 × 2.7-m coils made of copper bus bar are employed. This arrangement is energized from the power grid via a 30:1 transformer; horizontal magnetic flux densities up to 1 mT can be generated. Pairs of electrode plates spaced 30.5 cm apart provide electric field exposure of up to 130 kV/m. Four systems with a capacity of 48 rats each are located in one room. For both the in vitro and in vivo systems, magnetic exposure fields are uniform to within ± 2.5%, and sham levels are at least 2,500-fold lower than exposure levels. Potential confounding factors, such as heating and vibration, were examined and found to be minimal.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: 60-Hz electric fields ; induced body currents ; aversive behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Thirty-two male rats were tested in two replicates of an experiment to determine whether body currents induced by 60-Hz magnetic fields might lead to avoidance behavior comparable to that which results from exposure to strong 60-Hz electric fields. The test apparatus was a two-compartment Plexiglas® shuttlebox enclosed in a sound-attenuating plywood chamber, which in turn was encompassed by two copper bus bars that, when energized, served as a source of 60-Hz magnetic fields. Location of the rat, and traverse activity in the shuttlebox were monitored by nine infra-red photo detectors equally spaced along the length of the apparatus. Rats were divided into 2 groups: 1 group of rats (n = 8 per group per replicate) was sham exposed while rats in the other group (n = 8 per group per replicate) were exposed to a 3.03 mT (30.3 G), 60-Hz magnetic field whenever they traversed to or were located on the side (L or R) predetermined as the exposed side. To control artifact incident to side preference, the side exposed (L or R) was alternated over the exposed rats. Each rat was tested individually in a 1-h session. A 2-factor ANOVA (exposed vs. control, replicate 1 vs. replicate 2) failed to reveal any significant effects due to either factor or to an interaction between factors. These data demonstrate that rats do not avoid exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields at a flux density of 3.03 mT and further imply that the avoidance by rats of high level 60-Hz electric fields is mediated by something other than the internal body currents induced by the exposure. 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mature male rats were injected with radioiron, which labeled immature red cells that were in the stage of hemoglobin synthesis at the time. Washed cells were subjected to lysis by hypotonic saline at 14 intervals ranging from 1 to 85 hours after 59Fe injection. Lysis curves were determined colorimetrically (for the whole population) and by scintillation counting of 59Fe gamma rays (for the labeled population). Newly labeled rat red cells are much more resistant than mature erythrocytes. The mature curve of osmotic resistance is acquired about 67 hours after injection. The delivery of labeled cells continues for more than 36 hours, so the maturation of osmotic properties of a typical rat red cell takes about 30 hours from entry into the circulation. Washed dog cells behave in similar fashion but delivery continues for three days and the mature lysis curve does not appear until five days after labeling, so that maturation takes about two days. Preincubation of cells is requisite for the appearance of osmotic resistance, but the basis of the incubation effect is not yet known.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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