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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (16)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Swelling ; Kinetic of ; Cartilage ; normal ; fibrillated ; osteoarthritic ; Weight-bearing areas ; high and low ; Biochemical composition ; correlation with ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The nonequilibrium or kinetic swelling behavior of normal, fibrillated, and osteoarthritic (OA) (removed from total knee joint replacements) human knee joint cartilage has been measured using our isometric tensile apparatus (ITA). We found that large local variation exist in the manner with which human knee joint cartilage swells, including anisotropic effects, inhomogeneities, and dependence on local biochemical composition and pathological condition. The ITA provides three convenient biomechanical parameters - peak stress (s̰P), stress relaxation (s̰R), and diffusion coefficient (D) - to quantify the kinetics of swelling. We used these parameters to quantify and differentiate the kinetic swelling behavior of normal, fibrillated, and osteoarthritic cartilage, as well as the swelling behavior of cartilage from high and low weight-bearing areas. Also, these kinetic swelling parameters correlated very well, though by varying degrees, with such biochemical measures as collagen/proteoglycan ratio, hexosamine content/wet weight, and hydroxyproline content/dry weight, providing important insight into the mechanisms and processes involved during the course of swelling. Hence, the kinetic swelling behavior of cartilage should be used to provide important information not obtainable from equilibrium swelling studies.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 117-120 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Thioredoxin ; TRX1 ; TRX2 ; genetic map location ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The two genes encoding thioredoxims in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TRX1 and TRX2, map to chromosome XII and VII, respectively. From the DNA sequence of the intragenic region TRX1 is 500 bp downstream of PDC1. Tetrad analysis places TRX21·1 cM from ADE3, while a physical map of this region positions TRX2 4·5 kb downstreams of ADE3. The mapping of TRX1 adjacent to PDC1 clarifies previous results (Muller, E. G. D. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 9194-9202, 1991) that suggested a third thioredoxims gene.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Spermiogenesis ; Nuclear condensation ; Chromatin ; Protamines ; Protein-precursors ; Neogastropod mollusc ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: During the process of chromatin cndensation in the spermiogenesis of the neogastropod mollusc Murex brandaris, the nuclear protein complement undergoes a complex series of changes. These changes lead to the appearance of three small protamines in the ripe sperm nuclei. We have characterized this system electrophoretically and at the compositions with antibodies elicited against a specific spermatozoan protamine. Our results indicate that the complex pattern of chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis in this species (M. brandaris) may be modulated by a series of post-translational (and intranuclear) modifications of DNA-interacting proteins, such as precursors to the sperm protamines. The amino acid composition of each sperm protamine is remarkably simple (lys + arg + gly ≥96 mol%). This system of spermiogenic/spermatozoal proteins in the neogastropod M. brandaris clearly differs from that in patellogastropods and archaeogastropods, and it may be helpful in understanding evolutionary changes in the chromatin condensation pattern during the spermiogenesis of gastropod molluscs. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Immunocytochemistry ; Chromatin structure ; Nuclear proteins ; Testis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: We have followed the fine structural distribution of two nucleosomal core histones, H2B and H3, and of protamines in the course of mouse spermiogenesis by means of specific antibodies and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry.Our results demonstrate that the nuclear labeling density of histone H2B decreases during steps 6-8 and then increases again in step 9-10 spermatids, while the labeling for histone H3 is constant throughout this period. In step 12 spermatids, the anti-H2B antibody labels mainly the central area of the nucleus. The first signs of protamine labeling are present in step 12 spermatids, where the gold grains can be found over the periphery of the nucleus. Later on, protamine labeling constantly increases and, by the end of spermiogenesis, the whole nucleus is labeled.We suggest that the morphological and structural differences between the central area and the periphery of mouse spermatids are, at least partly, due to a difference in the protein moiety associated with DNA. The central area, which is peculiar to the mouse and has been previously considered as a focus of chromatin condensation, represents, however, the last nuclear region containing histones and consequently the last area where the substitution of histones by protamines takes place.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mammalian spermatozoa undergo changes in morphology, composition, and function during transit through the epididymis. These changes correlate with acquisition by sperm of the ability to fertilize ova. It has been found that sperm from the cauda epididymidis, but not those from the caput epididymidis, are able to bind to the zona pellucida. This would imply a modification in sperm surface characteristics. Biochemical and immunological studies have demonstrated changes in sperm surface composition during epididymal maturation. These changes involve addition of epididymal maturation. These changes involve addition of epididymal secretory products to the sperm surface, loss or alteration of existing sperm surface molecules, and possibly the unmasking of preexisting molecules or epitopes. Several laboratories have studied the epididymal secretory proteins in the rat, but a consensus has not been reached on the identification, characterization, source, and sperm surface association of these proteins. Monoclonal antibodies are beginning to be used to characterize sperm surface components and sperm maturation antigens. They are proving to be valuable tools for the dissection of epididymal maturation when used in conjunction with biochemical and physiological approaches.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: DNA/protein interaction ; simple repetitive DNA ; binding domain ; conformation changes ; intron 2 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that HeLa neuclear proteins bind fast and with measurable affinity to target DNAs containing mixed simple repetitive (gt)n(ga)m stretches. Preincubation of the proteins at elevated temperature prevents the formation of the major DNA/protein complex in favour of several distinct assemblies. A similar pattern of retarded bands was observed employing higher salt concentrations in binding reaction. Thus conformational changes of different proteins appear to influence the complex rather than alternating DNA structures. Separation of the total nuclear extract into a water soluble and an insoluble protein fraction leads to a complete loss of target DNA bindinlg capability of the fractions. The binding capacity is restored by combining the two fractions suggesting that at least two protein components are necessary to form a complex with the target sequence. The proteins can be differentiated into head sensitive, water soluble and temporary stable, water insoluble, respectively. Furthermore, specifically binding polypeptides are not detectable by Southwestern analyses, probably because the essential components are separated during electrophoresis. DNase 1 footpoint analyses yield four different protein binding regions only on the (gt)n(ga)m harbouring strand. The footprints cover larger portions of the mixed simple repeat in addition to a portion 5′ of the (gt)n part. Hence at lealst two nuclear protein components of unknown biological function have to be present simultaneously to protect preferentially the (gt)n(ga)m-containing strand intron 2 in HLA-DRB genes
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 10 (1915), S. 53-65 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 133 (1959), S. 219-239 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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