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  • 1
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Neurotransmitters ; Hair cells ; Inner ear efferents ; Amino acid uptake ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The cochlea is well suited for studies of the uptake properties of auditory neurons and nonneuronal supporting cells. Probe concentrations of radioisotopically labeled amino acids, including putative neurotransmitters and their precursors, breakdown products, and blockers, can be introduced via the natural, fluid-filled channels of the inner ear. Uptake patterns can be mapped at cellular and intracellular levels using light and electron microscopic autoradiographic methods. The procedures for introduction of label, fixation, plastic embedment, and light and electron microscopic autoradiography are described with special reference to the cochlea. Labeling patterns observed with over 20 amino acids are summarized for hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, efferents, and nonneural elements of the stria vascularis, limbus, and modiolus. Limitations on the interpretation of results and their implications for the general usefulness of the methods are discussed.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; elongation factor-3 ; EF-3 ; homolog ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A paralog (intraspecies homolog) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEF3 gene, encoding elongation factor-3, has been sequenced in the course of the yeast genome project, and identified by database searching; this gene has been designated HEF3. Bioinformatic and Northern blot analysis indicate that the HEF3 gene is not expressed during vegetative growth. Deletion of the HEF3 gene reveals no growth defects, nor any defects in mating or sporulation. A high copy 2μ clone of HEF3 was constructed, and was shown to be unable to complement a null allele of yef3. Finally, an in vitro assay for ribosome-stimulated ATPase activity was performed with isogenic HEF3 and Δhef3 strains; no difference in biochemical activity could be detected in these strains. From these results, we conclude that the HEF3 gene does not encode a functional homolog of YEF3. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Biosynthesis ; Intervertebral disc ; Proteoglycan aggregation ; Proteoglycan subunit structure ; Spinal fusion ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Posterior lumbar two-level spinal fusion was undertaken in 10 mature beagles. The animals were sacrificed 6 and 12 months later. Two months before sacrifice control and experimental animals received intravenously Na235 (1 mCi/Kg). Discs encompassed by the fusion and those adjacent to it were dissected into the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus (AF), which were analysed separately. Proteoglycans (PGs) were extracted with 4.0 M guanidine HCL and purified by CsCL density gradient ultracentrifugation. The hydrodynamic size and ability of the PG subunits to aggregate in the presence of hyaluronic acide were investigated by Sepharose CL-2B chromatography. The PG subunits were analysed for their galactosamine (galN), glucosamine (glcN), hexuronic acid, and protein content or were subjected to digestion with papain or chondroitin -ABC-lyase to establish the size of the chrondroitin (CS) and keratan (KS) sulphate chains and the KS-PG core protein complex. Decreased ability to aggregate of PGs isolated from discs 6 and 12 months was generally the same or smaller than those in control tissues, the PG population present after 12 months was larger, particularly in the AF. Analysis of PG subunits from fusion discs afforded galN/glcN, galN/protein, and hexuronic acid/protein rotios that were compatible with the presence in these tissues of PGs in which the proportion of CS attached to core protein was greater than in control tissues. These. These studies provide the first experimental evidence that a metabolic response of discs in a fused segment may be accompanied by the biosynthesis of a new PG population whose structure is similar to that present in immature tissues.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 190 (1986), S. 27-41 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: There are two types of cheek pouches in extant rodents. Internal cheek pouches are evaginations of the oral cavity deep to M. platysma and M. sphincter colli profundus, and have evolved independently in some species of the superfamilies Sciuroidea and Muroidea. External, furlined cheek pouches open lateral to and separate from the oral cavity, (also deep to M. platysma and M. sphincter colli profundus), and occur in all species of the families Geomyidae and Heteromyidae. The presence of external, furlined cheek pouches is a synapomorphy for the superfamily Geomyoidea.The posterior retractor muscle of the pouch is derived from facial musculature in sciurids, from trapezius musculature in cricetids, and from both facial and trapezius muscle groups in the Geomyoidea. Differences also exist in the musculature associated with the pouch opening. In the Sciuridae and Cricetidae, the M. buccinatorius muscle group acts as a sphincter to control the size of the pouch opening. In the Geomyoidea, the size of the opening is controlled by the M. orbicularis sacculi in concert with a slip of the M. Platysma myoides.Thin sections and scanning electron micrographs of the pouch tissue reveal the presence of dermal papillae in Phodopus sungorus but not in a close relative, Mesocricetus auratus. All members of the subfamily Cricetinae have a peninsula of highly folded tissue projecting anteriorly from the posteromedial pouch wall. This folding allows for expansion of the pouch walls when food is stored in the pouch.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The vampire bat pectoralis muscle contains at least four fiber types distributed in a nonhomogeneous pattern. One of these fiber types, here termed IIe, can be elucidated only by adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) histochemistry combined with reactions against antifast and antislow myosin antibodies. The histochemical and immunohistochemical observations indicate a well-developed specialization of function within specific regions of the muscle. In parallel, analyses of native myosin isoforms and myosin heavy chain isoforms indicate two points. First, the histochemical “type IIe” fiber is predominant in cranial portions of the muscle, and myosin extracted from these regions exhibits a unique electrophoretic mobility not observed in the myosin isoforms of more traditional laboratory mammals. Second, the type I fibers are confined to the pectoralis abdominalis muscle and a small adjacent region of the caudal part of the pectoralis. This pattern of type I fiber distribution is considered a derived character state compared to muscle histochemical phenotype and isoform composition in the pectoralis muscles of other phyllostomids we have studied (Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata). We relate this to the unique locomotory needs of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 198 (1980), S. 147-161 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and T system of the anterior (tonic) and posterior (fast twitch) latissimus dorsi muscles of the chicken have been examined by the freeze-fracture technique, and quantitative data on the P and E fracture faces have been obtained.The fractured plasma membranes reveal (a) profiles of surface caveolae, (b) randomly distributed intramembranous particles ranging in size from 40-100 Å in diameter, and (c) orthogonal assemblies composed of groups of 60 Å particles in close association, and differences with respect to all three structures are present between the tonic (ALD) and fast twitch (PLD) muscles. In the ALD muscle, the surface caveolae are more uniformly distributed and have smaller openings than in the PLD muscle; the former muscle also has a two-fold higher caveolae density than the latter muscle. The intramembranous particles are more numerous in the ALD than in the PLD muscle in both fracture faces, but the orthogonal assemblies are fewer. The functional significance of these differences in the two fiber types are discussed.The fractured membranes of the SR have intramembranous particles (IMP's) approximately 80 Å in diameter, with a two-fold higher packing density in the PLD than in the ALD muscle. This difference is present in both the longitudinal and cisternal components of the SR. In addition, there are collar-like expansions (CLE's) in the SR of the ALD muscle which are particularly poor in intramembranous particles. These particles are considered to represent Ca2+ transport ATP-ase, and the reduced density of IMP's could be a significant factor in the low calcium uptake and slow relaxation characteristics of the ALD muscle.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Development ; Immunohistochemistry ; Renin-containing cells ; Sheep ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Renin-containing (RC) cells in small ruminant kidneys have been known to be widely distributed along the blood vessels. In the present study, RC cells in developing sheep kidneys were studied to investigate not only the appearance but distribution with the potential physiological significance using immunohistochemical and histophanimetrical techniques.Methods: Seven fetal, 12 newborn, and 3 adult metanephric kidneys were used and immunostained by anti-renin antiserum. In the histoplanimetrical analysis, the numerical values of RC cells existing at the walls of 3 major arterial types in the kidneys were calculated.Results: At day 44 of gestation, RC cells were already demonstrated in the walls of renal, interlobar, and afferent vessels, located in the deep cortex and the medulla. In intermediate gestational periods, RC cells were detected throughout the intrarenal arterial trees. In late gestational periods, RC cells expressed in the walls of interlobar/arcuate and interlobular arteries tended to decrease or disappear gradually, while they were distributed predominantly in the afferent glomerular vessels. In newborn lambs, especially days 1 to 3 after birth, increased numbers of RC cells were demonstrated throughout the arterial trees in the kidneys. In older lambs, RC cells located in the interlobar/arcuate arteries and the proximal region of the interlobular arteries decreased in number and gradually disappeared. Some RC cells were still distributed in the distal portion of the interlobular artery even in the adult sheep.Conclusions: These results suggest that the wide distribution of RC cells in sheep kidney is formed in perinatal life, and that the neuronal regulation is associated with the maintenance of this distribution. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The frog-eating bat (Trachops cirrhosus) is unusual among bats studied because of its reliance on low-frequency (〈5 kHz) sounds emitted by frogs for prey localization. We investigated the ear of this bat in order to identify anatomical features that might serve as adaptations for low-frequency hearing. Trachops cirrhosus has a variety of anatomical features that might enhance low-frequency hearing, either by increasing sensitivity to low-frequency sounds or expanding the total frequency range to include lower frequencies. These bats have long pinnae, and a long and wide basilar membrane. The basal portion of the basilar membrane is much stiffer than the apical portion, and the basal portion of the tectorial membrane is more massive than the apical portion. There is also a concentration of mass in the apical portion of the cochlea. T. cirrhosus possesses the largest number of cochlear neurons reported for any mammal, the second highest density of cochlear neurons innervation known among mammals, and three peaks of cochlear neuron density. Other bats have two peaks of cochlear neuron density, lacking the apical concentration, while other mammals usually have only one. T. cirrhosus differs from most other small mammals and bats in characteristics of the apical portion of the cochlea, i.e., that area where the place theory of hearing predicts that low frequencies are detected.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: embryo ; lactate ; carbon dioxide ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Factors affecting the production of platelet activating factor (PAF) by mouse embryos during culture in vitro were investigated. Detectable levels of embryo-derived PAF were produced within 1-4 hr with maximum PAF activity being observed after 6 hr of culture in vitro. The amount of PAF detected in media after 24 hr of culture of two-cell embryos was equivalent to 12.8 ng PAF/embryo. However, differences in activity were apparent with increased time in culture. Reduced synthesis of PAF during culture in vitro was supported by the observation that morulae stage embryos collected fresh from the reproductive tract displayed more PAF activity than morulae resulting from the 48 hr culture of two-cell embryos. In addition to determining production characteristics of PAF by embryos, we also show that the production of CO2 from carbon-1 position of lactate is positively correlated with the ability of embryos to develop during subsequent culture in vitro and therefore could be used as a measure of embryo viability. Furthermore, culture of embryos in media supplemented with PAF resulted in an increase in lactate utilization demonstrating a direct effect of PAF on the embryo. As PAF is produced by preimplantation embryos, an autocoid role of PAF in regulating embryo development is implicated. Therefore, the reduced production of PAF by embryos in vitro may explain the decreased viability of embryos commonly observed following their culture in vitro.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Adriamycin ; rat hepatoma ; ρ° cells ; multidrug resistance ; P-glycoprotein ; Sandoz SDZ PSC 833 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Rat hepatoma cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ° cells) were used as a model system to examine the possible roles of mitochondrial DNA as a target for the DNA-acting anticancer drug Adriamycin (doxorubicin). The ρ° cells were 45-fold less sensitive to Adriamycin than the parental ρ+ cells containing mitochondrial DNA. Other non-DNA-acting drugs also exhibited similar behaviour, and this was shown to be due to a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in the ρ° cells. This was indicated by confocal microscopy where ρ+ cells exhibited thirteenfold higher cellular levels of Adriamycin than ρ° cells. Upregulation (tenfold) of P-glycoprotein in ρ° cells was also confirmed by Northern dot blot analysis. Since the MDR phenotype is present in ρ° cells and upregulation of P-glycoprotein is maintained in these cells, ρ° cells are not a good model system for drug-DNA studies (where the drug is susceptible to extrusion by P-glycoprotein), and any such results obtained with this system must be treated with considerable caution. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:463-469, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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