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  • Computer tomography  (1)
  • Liver  (1)
  • DSC
  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2315
    Keywords: Computer tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Ray-casting algorithm ; Voxel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Multi-slice images obtained from computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging represent a 3D image volume. For its visualization we use a raycasting algorithm working on a gray-scale voxel data model. This model is extended by additional attributes such as membership to an organ or a second imaging modality (“generalized voxel model”). It is shown that the combination of different surface-rendering algorithms together with cutting and transparent display allow a realistic visualization of the human anatomy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Nicotine ; Metabolism ; Lung ; Liver ; Phenobarbital ; Cytochrome P-450
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The metabolic fate of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, was studied in phenobarbital-induced and non-induced isolated perfused rat lung and liver and in isolated hepatocytes of rats and mice. The non-induced lung tissue showed low cotinine metabolizing capacity while the perfused liver was approximately four times more active. After phenobarbital pretreatment the metabolism of cotinine was increased eight-fold in the intact liver. A substantial increase in cotinine metabolism was also found in isolated hepatocytes from PB-induced rats and in cultured mouse hepatocytes grown in a medium supplemented with PB. This was paralleled by an increased formation of cotinine-N-oxide which could be inhibited by 100 μM metyrapone. In contrast, the pulmonary elimination of cotinine was not affected by PB. A dominant role of primary N-oxidation of nicotine compared to C-oxidation was apparent in non-induced rat liver. After PB treatment the rate of nicotine-N′-oxide formation dropped markedly while the cotinine related pathways were increased causing an inversion of the N- to C-oxidation ratio. In the lung, cotinine formation was the preferred metabolic pathway of nicotine already in non-induced organs. The pattern of nicotine metabolites was not altered by PB induction. In conscious PB-induced rats receiving nicotine orally or intravenously, 3′-hydroxycotinine was found as the main urinary metabolite of nicotine while only a small fraction was excreted as cotinine-N-oxide. This discrepancy between the profile of nicotine metabolites in perfused liver and lung and in the urine in vivo indicates that extrahepatic organs other than the lung may be important sites of cotinine metabolism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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