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  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Spring-pendulum system ; chaos ; Lyapunovexponent
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract An investigation into chaotic responses of a weakly nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom system is made. The specific system examined is a harmonically excited spring pendulum system, which is known to be a good model for a variety of engineering systems, including ship motions with nonlinear coupling between pitching and rolling motions. By the method of multiple scales the original nonautonomous system is reduced to an approximate autonomous system of amplitude and phase variables. The approximate system is shown to have Hopf bifurcation and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaotic motions. In order to examine what happens in the original system when the approximate system exhibits chaos, we compare the largest Lyapunov exponents for both systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: emulsion swelling ; additives ; HLB value ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Control of the swelling of two different liquid emulsion membrane systems for separation of lactic acid was examined. The major disadvantages of swelling are dilution of the separated product and emulsion breakage. Several additives including liquid paraffin, cyclohexanone and n-decanol were investigated with respect to both emulsion swelling and lactic acid separation rate. If swelling is a function of surfactant concentration, the swelling increases with the quantity of the hydrophilic part in the surfactant. Therefore, a surfactant with a low hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) value should be used to reduce the swelling. The use of Span 85 (HLB = 1·8) as co-surfactant achieved the objective in the case of a tri-n-octylamine/Span 80 system.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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