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  • 1
    ISSN: 1534-4681
    Keywords: Colon cancer ; Lymph node metastasis ; Lymph node size
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Detection of metastatic lymph nodes in colon cancer is essential for determining stage and adjuvant treatment modalities. Lymph node size has been used as one possible criterion for nodal metastasis. Although enlarged regional lymph nodes are generally interpreted as metastases, few data are available that correlate lymph node size with metastatic infiltration in colon cancer. Methods: In a prospective morphometric study, the regional lymph nodes from 30 colon specimens from consecutive patients with primary colon cancer were analyzed. The lymph nodes were counted and the largest diameter of each lymph node was measured and analyzed for metastatic involvement by histological examination. Results: A total of 698 lymph nodes were present in the 30 specimens examined for this study. A mean number of 23 (range, 19–39) lymph nodes was found in each specimen. Of these nodes, 566 (81%) were tumor-free and 132 (19%) contained metastases. The mean diameter of the lymph nodes free of metastases was 3.9 mm, whereas those infiltrated by metastases averaged 5.9 mm in diameter (P〈 0.0001). Of the tumor-free lymph nodes, 528 (93%) measured 〈 5 mm in diameter, whereas 70 (53%) lymph nodes containing metastases measured 〈 5 mm in diameter. Conclusions: Lymph node size is not a reliable indicator for lymph node metastasis in colon cancer. A careful histological search for small lymph node metastasis in the specimen should be undertaken to avoid false-negative node staging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Left ventricular volumes ; Left ventricular function ; Positron emission tomography ; Gating
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To date cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) studies have focussed on the measurement of myocardial blood flow, metabolism and receptors while left ventricular (LV) function and dimensions have been derived from other modalities. The main drawback of this approach is the difficulty of data co-registration, which limits clinical interpretation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is possible to measure absolute cardiac volumes, and consequently LV function parameters such as ejection fraction, and wall motion with gated PET. Nineteen patients underwent a PET scan and planar radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) within 9±9 days. A 9-min scan (16 gates/cardiac cycle) was acquired after inhalation of 3 MBq/ml of oxygen-15 labelled carbon monoxide at the rate of 500 m1/min over 4 min using a multislice PET camera. Noise reduction was performed on the gated image to enhance the definition of the ventricles before reslicing to the short-axis view. A threshold value was used to detect the edge of the LV at each gate. LV volumes at each gate were estimated by summing the volume of voxels within the LV boundary. PET measurements of LV volumes were as follows: LV end-diastolic volume ranged from 72 to 233 ml and LV end-systolic volume ranged from 24 to 203 ml. Phantom experiments supported the validity of this approach for estimating volumes. LV ejection fraction measured with MUGA was 38.4%±16.3% (range 15%–71%) and that measured with PET was 39.6%±17.7% (range 9%–72%) (P=NS). The LV ejection fraction measurements were highly correlated (r 2=0.824). These results indicate that: (1) absolute enddiastolic and end-systolic volumes can be quantified using gated PET and (2) LV ejection fraction can be accurately measured by gated PET simultaneously with the other physiological PET parameters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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