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  • Germany  (48)
  • MECHANISM  (24)
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  • 1
    Keywords: ESTROGEN ; estrogen receptor ; in vivo ; THERAPIES ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; mechanisms ; DISSECTION ; LIGANDS ; RECEPTOR ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; VIVO ; MECHANISM ; LIGAND
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; DRUG ; MICE ; RESPONSES ; MECHANISM ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; RATS ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; ALPHA ; CREB ; ELEMENT ; ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN ; ISOFORM ; MUTANT ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; NO ; TARGETED MUTATION ; DECREASE ; STRESS ; MUTATION ; MODULATION ; REGION ; REGIONS ; Jun ; INVOLVEMENT ; BEHAVIOR ; FOOD ; LACKING ; BINDING PROTEIN ; molecular ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; DEPENDENCE ; NEURONS ; KNOCKOUT MICE ; ADDICTION ; CERULEUS ; conditioned place preference ; emotional behavior ; locus coeruleus ; LOCUS-COERULEUS NEURONS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; NEURAL PLASTICITY ; opiate addiction ; OPIATE-WITHDRAWAL
    Abstract: The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) has been shown to regulate different physiological responses including drug addiction and emotional behavior. Molecular changes including adaptive modifications of the transcription factor CREB are produced during drug dependence in many regions of the brain, including the locus coeruleus (LC), but the molecular mechanisms involving CREB within these regions have remained controversial. To further investigate the involvement of CREB in emotional behavior, drug reward and opioid physical dependence, we used two independently generated CREB-deficient mice. We employed the Cre/loxP system to generate mice with a conditional CREB mutation restricted to the nervous system, where all CREB isoforms are lacking in the brain (Creb / (NesCre)). A genetically defined cohort of the previously described hypomorphic Creb / (alphaDelta) mice, in which the two major transcriptionally active isoforms (alpha and Delta) are disrupted throughout the organism, were also used. First, we investigated the responses to stress of the CREB-deficient mice in several paradigms, and we found an increased anxiogenic-like response in the both Creb / mutant mice in different behavioral models. We investigated the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse (cocaine and morphine) and natural reward (food) using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. No modification of motivational responses of morphine, cocaine, or food was observed in mutant mice. Finally, we evaluated opioid dependence by measuring the behavioral expression of morphine withdrawal and electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons. We showed an important attenuation of the behavioral expression of abstinence and a decrease in the hyperactivity of LC neurons in both Creb / mutant mice. Our results emphasize the selective role played by neuronal CREB in emotional-like behavior and the somatic expression morphine withdrawal, without participating in the rewarding properties induced by morphine and cocaine
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15029152
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  • 3
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; GENE ; GENES ; RELEASE ; RESPONSES ; MECHANISM ; FREQUENCY ; hormone ; STRESS ; inactivation ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; glucocorticoid receptor ; LIVING CELLS ; RECEPTORS ; GLUCOCORTICOID-RECEPTOR ; ANTAGONIST ; rodent ; SUBCELLULAR-LOCALIZATION ; signaling ; NEURONS ; LIFE ; ENHANCEMENT ; ESTROGEN ; corticosteroid ; mineralocorticoid receptor ; LEVEL ; function ; alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor CA1 hippocampus ; glucocorticoid receptor knockout ; MICRODIALYSIS ; mineralocorticoid receptor knockout ; miniature excitatory postsynaptic current ; RAT HIPPOCAMPUS ; SYNAPSES
    Abstract: The adrenal hormone corticosterone transcriptionally regulates responsive genes in the rodent hippocampus through nuclear mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Via this genomic pathway the hormone alters properties of hippocampal cells slowly and for a prolonged period. Here we report that corticosterone also rapidly and reversibly changes hippocampal signaling. Stress levels of the hormone enhance the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons and reduce paired-pulse facilitation, pointing to a hormone-dependent enhancement of glutamate-release probability. The rapid effect by corticosterone is accomplished through a nongenomic pathway involving membrane-located receptors. Unexpectedly, the rapid effect critically depends on the classical mineralocorticoid receptor, as evidenced by the effectiveness of agonists, antagonists, and brain-specific inactivation of the mineralocorticoid but not the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Rapid actions by corticosterone would allow the brain to change its function within minutes after stress-induced elevations of corticosteroid levels, in addition to responding later through gene-mediated signaling pathways
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16361444
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  • 4
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; GENE ; transcription ; MICE ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; MARKER ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; CAMP ; ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN ; PATTERNS ; CYCLIC-AMP ; molecular ; PATTERN ; LIGHT ; analysis ; MEDICINE ; CIRCADIAN CLOCK ; MAJOR DEPRESSION ; SUPRACHIASMATIC-NUCLEI
    Abstract: Activation of the transcription factor CREB by Ser142 phosphorylation is implicated in synchronizing circadian rhythmicity, which is disturbed in many depressive patients. Hence, one could assume that emotional behaviour and neuroendocrinological markers would be altered in CREBS142A mice, in which serine 142 is replaced by alanine, preventing phosphorylation at this residue. Moreover, associations of CREB Ser142 and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) might be detectable by the analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CREB gene close to the Ser142 residue in SAD patients. However, neither CREBS142A mice demonstrate features of depression, nor there is evidence for an association of SAD with the CREB genotypes. Nevertheless, in humans there is an association of a global seasonality score and circadian rhythmicity with the CREB genotypes in healthy control probands, but not SAD patients. This parallels the phenotype of CREBS142A mice, presenting alterations of circadian rhythm and light-induced entrainment. Thus it is reasonable to assume that CREB Ser142 represents a molecular switch in mice and men, which is responsible for the (dys)regulation of circadian rhythms. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17574346
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  • 5
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; MODELS ; VIVO ; SYSTEM ; TOOL ; METABOLISM ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; RESPONSES ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; hippocampus ; MOUSE ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; DISRUPTION ; STRESS ; MUTATION ; DNA-BINDING ; MUTATIONS ; MOUSE MODEL ; glucocorticoid receptor ; DOMAINS ; DISSECTION ; review ; RE ; RESPONSIVENESS ; FOREBRAIN ; TECHNOLOGY ; LOSSES ; ENGLAND ; steroids ; STEROID-HORMONE RECEPTORS ; CRE RECOMBINASE ACTIVITY ; cortisol/corticosterone ; HPA axis
    Abstract: In the brain, glucocorticoids exert functions in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and behavioural responses, as well as in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. The generation of mice harbouring germline mutations that result either in loss or in gain of glucocorticoid receptor function provided a useful tool for understanding the role of glucocorticoids in the brain in vivo. The improvement of genomic technologies additionally allowed the establishment of mouse models with function-selective point mutations of the receptor as well as the generation of mice harbouring spatially and/or temporally restricted loss of glucocorticoid receptor, specifically within the brain. These models will provide the opportunity to better understand the mechanisms involved in glucocorticoid signalling within the nervous system
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18513206
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; CELL ; MODEL ; MODELS ; GENE ; transcription ; METABOLISM ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; MARKER ; primary ; INDUCTION ; KERATINOCYTES ; mechanisms ; SKIN ; MATURATION ; MOUSE ; NUMBER ; DNA-BINDING ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; epidermis ; ARCHITECTURE ; desmosomes ; USA ; LOSSES ; HOMEOSTASIS ; BARRIER ; CASPASE-14 ; EPIDERMAL-KERATINOCYTES ; FETAL MOUSE
    Abstract: To investigate the contribution of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in skin development and the mechanisms underlying this function, we have analyzed two mouse models in which GR has been functionally inactivated: the knockout GR(-/-) mice and the dimerization mutant GR(dim/dim) that mediates defective DNA binding-dependent transcription. Because GR null mice die perinatally, we evaluated skin architecture of late embryos by histological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopy studies. Loss of function of GR resulted in incomplete epidermal stratification with dramatically abnormal differentiation of GR(-/-), but not GR(+/-) embryos, as demonstrated by the lack of loricrin, filaggrin, and involucrin markers. Skin sections of GR(-/-) embryos revealed edematous basal and lower spinous cells, and electron micrographs showed increased intercellular spaces between keratinocytes and reduced number of desmosomes. The absent terminal differentiation in GR(-/-) embryos correlated with an impaired activation of caspase-14, which is required for the processing of profilaggrin into filaggrin at late embryo stages. Accordingly, the skin barrier competence was severely compromised in GR(-/-) embryos. Cultured mouse primary keratinocytes from GR(-/-) mice formed colonies with cells of heterogeneous size and morphology that showed increased growth and apoptosis, indicating that GR regulates these processes in a cell-autonomous manner. The activity of ERK1/2 was constitutively augmented in GR(-/-) skin and mouse primary keratinocytes relative to wild type, which suggests that GR modulates skin homeostasis, at least partially, by antagonizing ERK function. Moreover, the epidermis of GR(+/dim) and GR(dim/dim) embryos appeared normal, thus suggesting that DNA-binding-independent actions of GR are sufficient to mediate epidermal and hair follicle development during embryogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18039792
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  • 7
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; human ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PATHWAY ; VITRO ; SYSTEM ; incidence ; GENE ; MICE ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; primary ; SKIN ; SUPPRESSION ; PROGRESSION ; NUMBER ; MELANOMA ; CANCER-CELLS ; RECEPTORS ; CHILDHOOD NEUROBLASTOMAS ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; AGENT ; CELL CARCINOMA ; RE ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; INCREASE ; CASPASE-8 ; C-FLIP ; SUPPRESSOR ; death receptor ; USA ; MEDICINE ; anoikis
    Abstract: TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in established tumor cell lines but not nontransformed cells. Herein, we demonstrate a role for the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) as a metastasis suppressor. Although mouse models employing tumor transplantation have shown that TRAIL can reduce tumor growth, autochthonous tumor models have generated conflicting results with respect to the physiological role of the TRAIL system during tumorigenesis. We used a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma to examine the role of TRAIL-R throughout all steps of tumor development. DMBA/TPA-treated TRAIL-R-deficient mice showed neither an increase in number or growth rate of benign papillomas nor an increase in the rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma. However, metastasis to lymph nodes was significantly enhanced, indicating a role for TRAIL-R specifically in the suppression of metastasis. We also found that adherent TRAIL-R-expressing skin carcinoma cells were TRAIL resistant in vitro but were sensitized to TRAIL upon detachment by inactivation of the ERK signaling pathway. As detachment from the primary tumor is an obligatory step in metastasis, this provides a possible mechanism by which TRAIL-R could inhibit metastasis. Hence, treatment of cancer patients with agonists of the apoptosis-inducing receptors for TRAIL may prove useful in reducing the incidence of metastasis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18079967
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  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; GENE ; GENES ; RNA ; transcription ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; INDUCTION ; hippocampus ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY ; DISRUPTION ; CELL-DEATH ; STRESS ; inactivation ; p53 ; STRATEGIES ; INTERACTS ; HEALTHY ; molecular ; ADULT ; RE ; FACTOR TIF-IA ; NEURONS ; ABLATION ; LEVEL ; cell death ; nucleolus ; RNA polymerase I ; progenitor ; INDUCE ; USA ; LOSSES ; neurodegeneration ; PROGENITORS ; DEGENERATION ; NOV ; response ; synthesis ; POLYMERASE ; STATE ; RNA-POLYMERASE ; neural progenitors ; rRNA transcription ; TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVITY
    Abstract: Transcription of rRNA genes is essential for maintaining nucleolar integrity, a hallmark for the healthy state and proliferation rate of a cell. Inhibition of rRNA synthesis leads to disintegration of the nucleolus, elevated levels of p53, and induction of cell suicide, identifying the nucleolus as a critical stress sensor. Whether deregulation of rRNA synthesis is causally involved in neurodegeneration by promoting cell death and/or by inhibiting cellular growth has however not been addressed. The transcription factor TIF-IA plays a central role in mammalian rRNA synthesis, regulating the transcriptional activity of RNA polymerase I. To investigate the consequences of nucleolar perturbation in the nervous system, we have chosen to specifically ablate the gene encoding the transcription factor TIF-IA in two different contexts: neural progenitors and hippocampal neurons. Here, we show that ablation of TIF-IA leads to impaired nucleolar activity and results in increased levels of the proapoptotic transcription factor p53 in both neural progenitors and hippocampal neurons but induces rapid apoptosis only in neural progenitors. Nondividing cells of the adult hippocampus are more refractory to loss of rRNA transcription and face a protracted degeneration. Our study provides an unexploited strategy to initiate neurodegeneration based on perturbation of nucleolar function and underscores a novel perspective to study the cellular and molecular changes involved in the neurodegenerative processes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19036968
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; PROTECTION ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; VIVO ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; NEW-YORK ; MICE ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; TYPE-1 ; ACID ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; DAMAGE ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; MUTANT MICE ; max ; ACUTE NEURONAL INJURY ; ANANDAMIDE ; ENDOCANNABINOIDS ; GLUTAMATE ; N-ACYLETHANOLAMINE PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; NEUROPROTECTION ; RAT-BRAIN ; SEIZURE
    Abstract: Abnormally high spiking activity can damage neurons. Signaling systems to protect neurons from the consequences of abnormal discharge activity have been postulated. We generated conditional mutant mice that lack expression of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 in principal forebrain neurons but not in adjacent inhibitory interneurons. In mutant mice, the excitotoxin kainic acid (KA) induced excessive seizures in vivo. The threshold to KA-induced neuronal excitation in vitro was severely reduced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons of mutants. KA administration rapidly raised hippocampal levels of anandamide and induced protective mechanisms in wild-type principal hippocampal neurons. These protective mechanisms could not be triggered in mutant mice. The endogenous cannabinoid system thus provides on-demand protection against acute excitotoxicity in central nervous system neurons
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14526074
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  • 10
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; evaluation ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; VIVO ; SUPPORT ; SYSTEM ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; RESPONSES ; DNA ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; hepatocytes ; INTERVENTION ; MR ; BINDING ; MEMORY ; TARGET ; MOUSE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; hormone ; IDENTIFICATION ; gene expression ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY ; DISRUPTION ; MUTATION ; DISPLAY ; DNA-BINDING ; MUTATIONS ; US ; MOUSE MODEL ; glucocorticoid receptor ; BODY ; side effects ; RECEPTORS ; INSIGHTS ; CRE RECOMBINASE ; GLUCOCORTICOID-RECEPTOR ; REPRESSION ; DIMERIZATION ; immunosuppression ; DISSECTION ; steroid ; signaling ; targeting ; BODIES ; molecular ; RE ; INTERFERENCE ; RESOURCE ; regulation ; gene targeting ; GENE-REGULATION ; GENE-TRANSCRIPTION ; MOUSE MODELS ; TARGET GENE ; corticosteroid ; gene regulation ; mineralocorticoid receptor ; SI
    Abstract: Functional genomic technologies, including artificial chromosome-based transgenesis and conditional gene targeting, allowed us to generate mouse models harboring genes with loss-of-function mutations, gain-of-function mutations, spatially and/or temporally restricted mutations, tissue-specific mutations, and function-selective mutations. This kind of "allelic series" for corticosteroid receptors in mouse models provides a very useful resource for the molecular understanding of corticosteroid function in vivo. These models will also support the identification of steroid receptor target genes in order to define a steroid signaling cascade in molecular terms. They provide opportunities for the identification of compounds that regulate steroid receptors in a tissue-specific and function-selective manner. For example, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators preventing receptor dimerization and DNA binding can be expected to reduce osteoporotic and/or diabetogenic side effects, but to display partial or full anti-inflammatory potential. Thus, these mouse models will help to evaluate distinct steroid receptor functions for therapeutic intervention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15241729
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