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  • MECHANISM  (4)
  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; THERAPY ; PROTEIN ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; MICE ; MECHANISM ; TISSUES ; mechanisms ; HEALTH ; Drosophila ; GLUTATHIONE ; PLASMA ; STRESS ; AGE ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; DAMAGE ; LIFE-SPAN ; CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS ; MUSCLE ; PARAMETERS ; SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; DIET ; LIPID-PEROXIDATION ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; OXYGEN ; antioxidants ; reactive oxygen species ; signaling ; OXIDATIVE-STRESS ; INCREASE ; INSULIN-RECEPTOR ; WEIGHT ; clinical trials ; LIFE ; REACTIVE OXYGEN ; LEVEL ; PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASES ; AGE-RELATED-CHANGES ; function ; LOSSES ; ROS ; PRECURSOR ; age-related decrease in ; ageing related functions ; CALORIE RESTRICTION ; cysteine deficit and ageing ; cysteine supplementation ; GLUTATHIONE REDOX STATE ; improvement of ; insulin receptor signaling and ageing ; limiting availability in old age ; oxidative shift in redox status ; redox signaling 'and ageing ; thiols
    Abstract: The popular use of antioxidative vitamins illustrates the growing awareness of oxidative stress as an important hazard to our health and as an important factor in the ageing process. Superoxide radicals and superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly formed in most cells and tissues. To ensure that ROS can function as biological signaling molecules without excessive tissue damage, ROS are typically scavenged by antioxidants such as glutathione and the vitamins A, C, and E. "Oxidative stress" occurs if the production of ROS is abnormally increased or antioxidant concentrations are decreased. Genetic studies in mice, Drosophila, and Celegans suggested that ageing may be mechanistically linked to oxidative stress. Several manifestations of oxidative stress were shown to increase with age, whereas tissue levels of vitamin E, plasma concentrations of vitamin C, and intracellular glutathione concentrations decrease with age. In at least two independent studies, cysteine supplementation on top of the normal protein diet has shown significant beneficial effects on each of several different parameters relevant to ageing, including skeletal muscle functions. As the quality of life in old age is severely compromised by the loss of skeletal muscle function, and as muscle function can be measured with satisfactory precision, loss of muscle function is one of the most attractive surrogate parameters of ageing. The mechanisms by which a deficit in glutathione and its precursor cysteine contributes to various ageing-related degenerative processes appears to be related largely but not exclusively to the dysregulation of redox-regulated biological signaling cascades
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17100590
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DIAGNOSIS ; DISEASE ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; BIOMARKERS ; mechanisms ; ACID ; STAGE ; MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT ; VASCULAR DEMENTIA ; GLUTAMATE ; Alzheimer's disease ; biomarker ; FLUID ; TRANSMITTERS ; amino acids ; PROTEIN-LEVELS ; NEVER ; Cerebrospinal fluid ; CSF ; PHOSPHORYLATED TAU ; SENILE DEMENTIA ; TOTAL TAU
    Abstract: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers play an important role in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its postulated precursor stage mild cognitive impairment (MCI). While CSF tau protein, phospho-tau protein and beta-amyloid have become part of the diagnostic process in clinical routine, the importance of several other biomarkers remains quite unclear. Among these, amino acids and metabolic compounds have been studied in clinical conditions mostly other than AD and, to our knowledge, never in MCI. In patients with AD (n = 14) and MCI (n = 13) we now determined CSF levels of 36 different amino acids and metabolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography. We found that 8 out of 36 amino acids (urea, threonine, glutamate, citrulline, beta-aminobutyric acid, ornithine, ammonia and arginine) were significantly elevated in the CSF of patients with AD compared to those with MCI. As most of these amino acids and metabolic compounds are functionally important for brain-specific metabolic processes, neurotransmitter pathways or compensatory mechanisms, our findings might reflect these changes occurring within the brain of patients with MCI and those who developed manifest AD. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20551690
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; BLOOD ; Germany ; SYSTEM ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; TUMORS ; LINES ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; prognosis ; CELL-LINES ; cytokines ; antibodies ; antibody ; immunohistochemistry ; DESIGN ; OBESITY ; LINE ; SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; adenocarcinoma ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; cell lines ; pancreatic cancer ; THYROID-HORMONE ; SERUM ; ELISA ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; CAPACITY ; DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA ; INTERLEUKIN-6 ; INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES ; SCREEN ; ABILITY ; DNA-MICROARRAY ; ACUTE-PHASE RESPONSE ; ANOREXIA ; cachexia ; NEUROPEPTIDE-Y ; UNCOUPLING PROTEIN-3
    Abstract: Background and Purpose: The mechanism behind aggressive development of cachexia in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer is not well understood. In this study, we investigated which factors are associated with the cachectic status of the patients and evaluated cachexia-promoting capacity of cancer and inflammatory cells. Experimental Design: DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to screen for cachexia-associated factors in pancreatic specimens obtained from non-cachectic and cachetic patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The expression pattern of the most prominently altered cachexia-associated factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), was further analyzed in patients sera by ELISA, in pancreatic specimens by immunohistochemistry, and in a coculture system by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using pancreatic cancer cell lines T3M4 (IL-6 positive) and Panc-1 (IL-6 negative) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from donors and noncachectic and cachectic patients. Results: Among numerous analyzed factors, IL-6 was significantly overexpressed in pancreatic specimens and elevated in serum of cachectic patients. The coculture system revealed that pancreatic cancer T3M4 cells but not Panc-1 cells were able to stimulate IL-6 exclusively in cachectic PBMC (by 14-fold) and this triggering was reduced by half in the presence of IL-6-neutralizing antibodies. Conclusion: IL-6 represents a prominent cachexia-associated factor in pancreatic cancer. IL-6 overexpression in cachectic patients is related to the ability of certain tumors to sensitize PBMC and induce cytokine expression in cachectic PBMC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16115919
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; liver ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; RAT ; CONTRAST ; mechanisms ; ACID ; ACIDS ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; MUSCLE ; EXCHANGE ; DEGRADATION ; SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; AMINO-ACIDS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; PROTEASOME ; insulin ; YOUNG ; CELL CARCINOMA ; ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES ; CATABOLISM ; correlation ; PROTEOLYSIS ; Male ; AUTOPHAGY ; TURNOVER ; amino acid-sensitive protein catabolism ; autophagic protein degradation ; postabsorptive protein catabolism
    Abstract: Autophagic (lysosomal) and proteasomic protein degradation are important regulatory mechanisms in the homeostasis of muscle mass, that may be profoundly disturbed in cancer and other wasting syndromes. Due to the inhibiting effect of amino acids and insulin, net proteolysis is restricted to the fasted state, and in autophagy certain amino acids have been identified as 'regulatory' in the rat, including leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, methionine, and histidine (i.e. LYFMH). The present cross-sectional study assessed postabsorptive net protein catabolism in male cancer patients as well as in healthy male volunteers, to analyse its relation to such 'regulatory amino acids'. Postabsorptive amino acid exchange rates across the leg were determined in patients with gastrointestinal cancer (GIC, n=47) or renal cell carcinoma (RCC, n=15), age-matched (n=33), and young male control subjects (n=42). Both groups of cancer patients revealed a significantly lower postabsorptive net protein catabolism than control subjects. Furthermore, in the control subjects, the postabsorptive net protein catabolism was found to be inversely and significantly correlated with the arterial concentrations of the 8 amino acids YSHMFGI and L which include 5 of the I regulatory amino acids'. Cancer patients, in contrast, revealed no such significant correlations. These results may indicate i) that postabsorptive net protein catabolism in skeletal muscle of healthy subjects may be sensitive to amino acids which reportedly regulate autophagy and ii) that such amino acidsensitive mechanism of protein catabolism may be disturbed in cancer patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17273753
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