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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; MEN ; GLIOMA ; JAPANESE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; COMMON VARIANTS ; MYOSIN VI ; 22Q13
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of 〉10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P 〈 5 x 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25217961
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; COMMON ; CT ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ALPHA ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; ENCODES ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; SNP ; MEN ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; LINE ; REGION ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; POPULATIONS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SINGLE ; DEFICIENCY ; ONCOLOGY ; ASSOCIATIONS ; SNPs ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; METAANALYSIS ; biomarker ; INTERVAL ; HAPLOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPES ; single-nucleotide ; USA ; HORMONES ; STEROID-HORMONES ; odds ratio ; cancer research ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; PREDICT ; steroids ; postmenopausal ; block ; HORMONE-LEVELS ; EXONS ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; ANDROGEN RECEPTOR GENE ; BRAZILIAN PATIENTS ; SERUM ANDROGENS
    Abstract: CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T27C (rs743572). We comprehensively characterized variation in CYP17 by direct sequencing of exons followed by dense genotyping across the 58 kb region around CYP17 in five racial/ethnic populations. Two blocks of strong linkage disequilibrium were identified and nine haplotype-tagging SNPs, including T27C, were chosen to predict common haplotypes (R-h(2) 〉= 0.85). These haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped in 8,138 prostate cancer cases and 9,033 controls, and 5,333 breast cancer cases and 7,069 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We observed borderline significant associations with prostate cancer for rs2486758 [TC versus TT, odds ratios (OR), 1.07; 95% confidence intervals (95% Cl), 1.00-1.14; CC versus TT, OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.26; P trend = 0.04] and rs6892 (AG versus AA, OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.15; GG versus AA, OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.95-1.30; P trend = 0.03). We also observed marginally significant associations with breast cancer for rs4919687 (GA versus GG, OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12, AA versus GG, OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34; P trend = 0.03) and rs4919682 (CT versus CC, OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; TT versus CC, OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33; P trend = 0.04). Common variation at CYP17 was not associated with circulating sex steroid hormones in men or postmenopausal women. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that common germ line variation in CYP17 makes a substantial contribution to postmenopausal breast or prostate cancer susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18006912
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; ASSOCIATION ; CANDIDATE GENE ; POLYMORPHISMS ; hormone ; genetics ; SNP ; MEN ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CARRIERS ; molecular biology ; VARIANT ; SNPs ; CANDIDATE GENES ; LEVEL ; USA ; HORMONES ; TESTOSTERONE ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; LOCI ; HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN ; SERUM ANDROGENS ; CONSORTIUM ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR-ALPHA ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; 3 ; Genetic ; genetic variation ; SEX-STEROID-HORMONES
    Abstract: Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17 beta-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 x 10(-21)), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 x 10(-15)), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 x 10(-6)) and SRD5A2 with 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 x 10(-6)). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19574343
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; RISK ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; AGE ; MEN ; PREDICTORS ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; cancer research ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in a Japanese population identified five novel regions not previously discovered in other ethnicities. In this study, we attempt to replicate these five loci in a series of nested prostate cancer case-control studies of European ancestry. METHODS: We genotyped five single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP): rs13385191 (chromosome 2p24), rs12653946 (5p15), rs1983891 (6p21), rs339331 (6p22), and rs9600079 (13q22), in 7,956 prostate cancer cases and 8,148 controls from a series of nested case-control studies within the National cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We tested each SNP for association with prostate cancer risk and assessed whether associations differed with respect to disease severity and age of onset. RESULTS: Four SNPs (rs13385191, rs12653946, rs1983891, and rs339331) were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (P values ranging from 0.01 to 1.1 x 10(-5)). Allele frequencies and ORs were overall lower in our population of European descent than in the discovery Asian population. SNP rs13385191 (C2orf43) was only associated with low-stage disease (P = 0.009, case-only test). No other SNP showed association with disease severity or age of onset. We did not replicate the 13q22 SNP, rs9600079 (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Four SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk in an Asian population are also associated with prostate cancer risk in men of European descent. IMPACT: This study illustrates the importance of evaluation of prostate cancer risk markers across ethnic groups.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22056501
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; proliferation ; PATHWAY ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; HISTORY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; FAMILY ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; STAGE ; AGE ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; SNP ; MEN ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; FACTOR-I ; CELL-MIGRATION ; PHOSPHOINOSITIDE 3-KINASE ; signaling ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; pooled analysis ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCER-RISK ; genetic association ; single nucleotide ; REGULATORY SUBUNIT
    Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates various cellular processes, including cellular proliferation and intracellular trafficking, and may affect prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, we explored the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PI3K genes and prostate cancer. Pooled data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium were examined for associations between 89 SNPs in PI3K genes (PIK3C2B, PIK3AP1, PIK3C2A, PIK3CD, and PIK3R3) and prostate cancer risk in 8,309 cases and 9,286 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression. SNP rs7556371 in PIK3C2B was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk [ORper (allele), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14); P-trend = 0.0017] after adjustment for multiple testing (P-adj = 0.024). Simultaneous adjustment of rs7556371 for nearby SNPs strengthened the association [ORper (allele), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.09-1.34); P-trend = 0.0003]. The adjusted association was stronger for men who were diagnosed before the age of 65 years [ORper (allele), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.20-1.79); P-trend = 0.0001] or had a family history [ORper (allele) = 1.57 (95% CI, 1.11-2.23); P-trend = 0.0114], and was strongest in those with both characteristics [ORper (allele) = 2.31 (95% CI, 1.07-5.07), P-interaction = 0.005]. Increased risks were observed among men in the top tertile of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels [ORper (allele) = 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.06); P-trend = 0.075]. No differences were observed with disease aggressiveness (Gleason grade = 8 or stage T-3/T-4 or fatal). In conclusion, we observed a significant association between PIK3C2B and prostate cancer risk, especially for familial, early-onset disease, which may be attributable to IGF-dependent PI3K signaling. Cancer Res; 70(6); 2389-96. (C)2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20197460
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  • 6
    Keywords: RISK ; VARIANTS ; MEN ; MUTATIONS ; PREDISPOSITION ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; HOXB13
    Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining approximately 30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23535732
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  • 7
    Keywords: DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; MEN ; LOCI ; 8Q24 ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIANTS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM). OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p〈0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p〈0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only. CONCLUSIONS: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24411283
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