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  • METAANALYSIS  (27)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; neoplasms ; INFORMATION ; screening ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PREVALENCE ; REGRESSION ; PROGRAM ; aging ; colonoscopy ; METAANALYSIS ; BIRTH ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; colorectal neoplasms ; PARTICIPATION ; POLYPS ; COHORTS ; STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasms increases with age and is higher among men than women. Cross-sectional analyses estimated that men reach an equivalent prevalence at a much younger age than women. However, cross-sectional estimates may be confounded by birth cohort effects. OBJECTIVE: To estimate age and cohort effects in advanced colorectal neoplasms and to adjust risk-advancement periods for men compared with women for birth cohort effects. DESIGN: Age-cohort analyses. SETTING: German screening colonoscopy program, 2003 to 2007. PARTICIPANTS: 2 185 153 participants aged 55 to 75 years. MEASUREMENTS: Sex- and age-specific prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced neoplasms (CRC or advanced adenoma) were plotted with and without stratification by birth cohort. Risk-advancement periods with 95% CI for men compared with women were estimated from log-binomial regression models with and without cross-sectional analysis adjustment for birth cohort effects. RESULTS: Overall, 17 196 participants (0.8%) had CRC and 152 429 (7.0%) had any advanced neoplasm. Age-specific prevalence was higher in men than in women and in later birth cohorts. The apparent modest increase in prevalence by age in cross-sectional analysis was much steeper after birth cohort effects were controlled for. In cross-sectional analysis, risk-advancement periods (95% CI) for men compared with women were 8.4 years (CI, 7.7 to 9.0 years) and 16.1 years (CI, 15.8 to 16.5 years) for CRC and any advanced neoplasm, respectively, and 3.4 years (CI, 2.6 to 4.3 years) and 6.9 years (CI, 6.4 to 7.4 years) after controlling for birth cohort effects. LIMITATION: Information on covariates that could explain cohort effects was lacking. CONCLUSION: In this population, strong cohort effects reduced age gradients in advanced colorectal neoplasms and inflated risk-advancement periods for men compared with women, but major risk advancement persisted, even after birth cohort effects were controlled for. Primary Funding Source: None.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20513827
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  • 2
    Keywords: GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; colorectal cancer ; smoking ; gene-environment interaction ; METAANALYSIS ; Menopausal hormone therapy ; glutathione S-transferase genes
    Abstract: Copy number variations (CNVs) of the glutathione-S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) and glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1) gene loci can lead to complete lack of enzyme and have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Since GSTs are involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, CNVs may modify CRC risk associated with smoking exposure and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use. We investigated CRC risk associated with GSTT1 and GSTM1 CNVs and their interaction with smoking in 1796 cases and 1806 age-, sex- and residence-matched controls from a German population-based case-control study (DACHS). The interaction with MHT was assessed in the subset of 684 postmenopausal female cases and 681 controls. Trimodular genotypes (0/0, 1/0, 1/1) were determined with relative quantification based on multiplex real-time PCR. The associations with CRC risk as well as possible effect modifications were evaluated using conditional logistic regression analysis. CNVs of GSTT1 and GSTM1 were not significantly associated with CRC risk. Compared to the 1/1 genotype, ORs for the 0/1 genotype and the 0/0 genotype were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.77-1.04) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.80-1.18) for GSTT1, and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.78-1.27) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.81-1.31) for GSTM1. Compared to the non-null genotype, ORs for the null-genotype were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.87-1.23) for GSTT1 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91-1.18) for GSTM1. No significant interaction with smoking and MHT use was observed. The present study does not provide evidence for a strong association between CRC risk and CNVs of GSTT1 or GSTM1 or for an effect modification of smoking or MHT use. (c) 2012 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22234881
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENOTYPES ; METAANALYSIS ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; VDR
    Abstract: Background: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is present in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and its genetic variants have been associated with an increased risk of CRC. The association with colorectal cancer prognosis remains widely unexplored. Methods: 1397 colorectal cancer patients participating in two cancer cohorts (ESTHER II and VERDI) and in a population-based case-control study (DACHS) were followed for 5 years. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality (469 events) and CRC-specific mortality (336 events) were estimated for VDR variants rs731236 (TaqI), rs2228570 (FokI), rs11568820 (Cdx2), and rs1989969 (VDR-5132). Results: No association was found between VDR polymorphism and CRC specific and all-cause mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios ranged from 0.79 (95% CI 0.57-1.12) to 1.14 (95% CI 0.89-1.46) for CRC-specific mortality and from 0.89 (95% CI 0.67-1.18) to 1.22 (95% CI 0.99-1.50) for all-cause mortality. All 95% confidence intervals included the null value. Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the common VDR gene variants investigated in this study are of clinical relevance with respect to CRC prognosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24075799
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  • 4
    Keywords: EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; OBESITY ; COLON-CANCER ; LIFE-STYLE FACTORS ; ASSOCIATIONS ; METAANALYSIS ; PROMOTER METHYLATION ; FATTY-ACID SYNTHASE ; MOLECULAR-FEATURES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported a positive association of body mass index (BMI) with microsatellite-stable (MSS) but not with microsatellite-instable (MSI-high) colorectal cancer. However, information from population-based studies conducted in representative age groups is so far limited. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study (DACHS) in Southern Germany, including 1,215 patients with incident colorectal cancer and 1,891 matched controls with no upper age limit. Information on risk factors of colorectal cancer was obtained in standardized interviews. Microsatellite instability was analyzed using a mononucleotide marker panel. RESULTS: Median age among cases was 69 years, and 115 cases were classified MSI-high (9.5%). In multivariate analyses, BMI was positively associated with both risk of MSI-high colorectal cancer [per 5 kg/m(2): OR, 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.17] and risk of MSS colorectal cancer (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33). The association with MSI-high colorectal cancer was limited to women (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.50-2.77; P interaction = 0.02) and most pronounced among ever users of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 2.36-9.30; P interaction = 0.01). In case-only analyses, BMI was more strongly associated with MSI-high colorectal cancer than with MSS colorectal cancer among women (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-1.82; P interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study confirms previous findings of increased risk of MSS colorectal cancer with obesity between both sexes and suggests that overweight and obesity may also be associated with increased risk of MSI-high colorectal cancer among women. IMPACT: These findings extend available data on the association of BMI and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer and may suggest a link between overweight and obesity with sporadic MSI-high colorectal cancer in women.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24127414
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  • 5
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; POPULATION ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; sensitivity ; EUROPE ; PROGRAM ; colonoscopy ; METAANALYSIS ; AVERAGE-RISK ; IMMUNOCHEMICAL TESTS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Randomized trials have shown that annual or biannual screening by guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs) reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. Few clinical studies have evaluated diagnostic performance of gFOBT through validation by colonoscopy in all participants. We aimed for a comprehensive evaluation of diagnostic performance of gFOBT by age and sex under routine screening conditions. METHODS: Our analysis is based on 20,884 colonoscopies following up a positive gFOBT and 182,956 primary screening colonoscopies documented in a state-wide quality assurance program in Bavaria, Germany, in 2007-2009. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+), which represent an integrative measure of diagnostic performance, were derived, by age groups (55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74 years) and sex, from a joint and comparative analysis of prevalences of colorectal neoplasms in both groups. RESULTS: Overall LR+ (95% confidence intervals) were 1.11 (1.06-1.15), 1.80 (1.72-1.88), and 5.04 (4.64-5.47) for non-advanced adenoma, advanced adenoma, and cancer, respectively. Assuming a specificity of gFOBT of 95.2%, as recently observed in a German study among 2,235 participants of screening colonoscopy, these LR+ would translate to sensitivities of 5.3%, 8.6%, and 24.2% for the three outcomes, respectively. Diagnostic performance was similarly poor among women and men and across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of gFOBT under routine screening conditions is even worse than previously estimated from clinical studies. In routine screening application, gFOBTs are expected to miss more than 9 out of 10 advanced adenomas and 3 out of 4 cancers. These results underline the need and the potential for better noninvasive CRC screening tests.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24343548
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  • 6
    Keywords: PROGRESSION ; FIBER ; COLON-CANCER ; ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; METAANALYSIS ; RED MEAT ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; susceptibility loci ; ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ; ASSOCIATION SCAN
    Abstract: Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24743840
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  • 7
    Keywords: HEALTH ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; PREDICTION ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; TASK-FORCE ; CHROMOSOME 8Q24 ; AMERICAN-COLLEGE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) can be greatly reduced through screening. To aid in the development of screening strategies, we refined models designed to determine risk of CRC by incorporating information from common genetic susceptibility loci. METHODS: By using data collected from more than 12,000 participants in 6 studies performed from 1990 through 2011 in the United States and Germany, we developed risk determination models based on sex, age, family history, genetic risk score (number of risk alleles carried at 27 validated common CRC susceptibility loci), and history of endoscopic examinations. The model was validated using data collected from approximately 1800 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, conducted from 1993 through 2001 in the United States. RESULTS: We identified a CRC genetic risk score that independently predicted which patients in the training set would develop CRC. Compared with determination of risk based only on family history, adding the genetic risk score increased the discriminatory accuracy from 0.51 to 0.59 (P = .0028) for men and from 0.52 to 0.56 (P = .14) for women. We calculated age-and sex-specific 10-year CRC absolute risk estimates based on the number of risk alleles, family history, and history of endoscopic examinations. A model that included a genetic risk score better determined the recommended starting age for screening in subjects with and without family histories of CRC. The starting age for high-risk men (family history of CRC and genetic risk score, 90%) was 42 years, and for low-risk men (no family history of CRC and genetic risk score, 10%) was 52 years. For men with no family history and a high genetic risk score (90%), the starting age would be 47 years; this is an intermediate value that is 5 years earlier than it would be for men with a genetic risk score of 10%. Similar trends were observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating information on CRC risk alleles, we created a model to determine the risk for CRC more accurately. This model might be used to develop screening and prevention strategies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25683114
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  • 8
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; SURGERY ; RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; COLON-CANCER ; LIFE-STYLE ; METAANALYSIS ; CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS ; INHIBITS APOPTOSIS
    Abstract: Current evidence on the association between smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis after diagnosis is heterogeneous and few have investigated dose-response effects or outcomes other than overall survival. Therefore, the association of smoking status and intensity with several prognostic outcomes was evaluated in a large population-based cohort of CRC patients; 3,130 patients with incident CRC, diagnosed between 2003 and 2010, were interviewed on sociodemographic factors, smoking behavior, medication and comorbidities. Tumor characteristics were collected from medical records. Vital status, recurrence and cause of death were documented for a median follow-up time of 4.9 years. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, associations between smoking characteristics and overall, CRC-specific, non-CRC related, recurrence-free and disease-free survival were evaluated. Among stage I-III patients, being a smoker at diagnosis and smoking 15 cigarettes/day were associated with lower recurrence-free (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.79 and aHR: 1.31; 95%-CI: 0.92-1.87) and disease-free survival (aHR: 1.26; 95%-CI: 0.95-1.67 and aHR: 1.29; 95%-CI: 0.94-1.77). Smoking was associated with decreased survival in stage I-III smokers with pack years 20 (Overall survival: aHR: 1.40; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.95), in colon cancer cases (Overall survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.05-2.17) and men (Recurrence-free survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.09-2.10; disease-free survival: aHR: 1.49; 95%-CI: 1.12-1.97), whereas no associations were seen among women, stage IV or rectal cancer patients. The observed patterns support the existence of adverse effects of smoking on CRC prognosis among nonmetastatic CRC patients. The potential to enhance prognosis of CRC patients by promotion of smoking cessation, embedded in tertiary prevention programs warrants careful evaluation in future investigations. What's new? Smoking is an established risk factor for a variety of cancers, including colorectal cancer, but evidence regarding its impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients remains sparse. In this population-based study of 3,130 colorectal cancer patients, smoking was associated with reduced survival among patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer. The analyses suggested that the association may be more pronounced in men than women. Future studies should take into account relationships between smoking and other lifestyle factors and should explore the potential role of using the teachable moment of cancer diagnosis in the promotion of smoking cessation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25758762
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  • 9
    Keywords: carcinoma ; RISK ; ACTIVATION ; METAANALYSIS ; 8Q24 ; SCAN ; HOMEOBOX GENE-EXPRESSION ; CDX2 ; PITX1
    Abstract: To identify new genetic factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a genome-wide association study in east Asians. By analyzing genome-wide data in 2,098 cases and 5,749 controls, we selected 64 promising SNPs for replication in an independent set of samples, including up to 5,358 cases and 5,922 controls. We identified four SNPs with association P values of 8.58 x 10(-7) to 3.77 x 10(-10) in the combined analysis of all east Asian samples. Three of the four were replicated in a study conducted in 26,060 individuals of European descent, with combined P values of 1.22 x 10(-10) for rs647161 (5q31.1), 6.64 x 10(-9) for rs2423279 (20p12.3) and 3.06 x 10(-8) for rs10774214 (12p13.32 near the CCND2 gene), derived from meta-analysis of data from both east Asian and European-ancestry populations. This study identified three new CRC susceptibility loci and provides additional insight into the genetics and biology of CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23263487
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; DRUG ; IMPACT ; REDUCTION ; ASSOCIATION ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; ADENOMAS ; prevention ; HEALTH ; colorectal cancer ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; POPULATIONS ; case-control studies ; aspirin ; NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ; chemoprevention ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; RE ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; USA ; prospective ; DRUGS ; odds ratio ; colorectal ; cardiovascular disease ; LONG-TERM USE ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; statins
    Abstract: Recent research has drawn attention to protective effects of statins on colorectal cancer (CRC) and possible joint effects with other drugs. Because statins are often administered in combination With low-dose aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the aim of our study was to investigate individual and combined effects of statins and low-dose aspirin on CRC risk. We assessed use of statins and low-dose aspirin in 540 cases with histologically confirmed incident CRC and 614 control subjects in a populations based case-control study in Germany. Multiple logistic regression. was used to estimate the impact of regular use of either low-dose aspirin or statins, and of both drugs combined on CRC risk. We found modest risk reduction of CRC for regular use of low-dose aspirin (adjusted odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.551.07) and a stronger association with regular use of statins (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) or use of both drugs (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.36-1.10). Combined use of low-dose aspirin and statins was associated with risk reduction by 62% after 5 or more years (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.97). Combinational chemoprevention with low-dose aspirin and statins might provide stronger risk reduction than either of the single drugs after at least 5 years use, but confirmation is needed, preferably in prospective cohort studies and eventually by randomized controlled trials. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17487832
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