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  • MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY  (3)
  • ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; BLOOD ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; LIGAND ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; BONE-MARROW ; LYMPHOMA ; GM-CSF ; SINGLE-CHAIN ANTIBODY ; receptor tyrosine kinase
    Abstract: The therapeutic efficacy of humanized or chimeric second-generation antitumor antibodies is clearly established, but often limited. In recent years, defined modifications of the glycosylation pattern or the amino-acid sequence of the human immunoglobulin G1 Fc part have resulted in the development of third-generation antibodies with improved capability to recruit Fc receptor-bearing effector cells. The first antibodies of this kind, currently evaluated in early clinical trials, are directed against lymphoma-associated antigens. Fc-engineered antibodies targeting myeloid leukemia are not yet available. We here report on the generation and preclinical characterization of an Fc-optimized antibody directed to the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), an antigen expressed on the leukemic blasts of all investigated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This antibody, termed 4G8SDIEM, mediated markedly enhanced cellular cytotoxicity against FLT3-expressing cell lines as well as blasts of AML patients. FLT3 expression levels on AML cells varied between 300 and 4600 molecules/cell and, in most cases, were substantially higher than those detected on normal hematopoietic precursor cells and dendritic cells (approximately 300 molecules/cell). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against these normal cells was not detectable. 4G8SDIEM has been produced in pharmaceutical quality in a university-owned production unit and is currently used for the treatment of leukemia patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22289926
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  • 2
    Keywords: THERAPY ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; LIGAND ; leukemia ; MHC CLASS-I ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELLS ; rituximab ; TRASTUZUMAB ; ACTIVATING RECEPTOR ; RECEPTOR POLYMORPHISMS
    Abstract: The ability of NK cells to mediate Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) largely contributes to the clinical success of antitumor Abs, including trastuzumab, which is approved for the treatment of breast cancer with HER2/neu overexpression. Notably, only approximately 25% of breast cancer patients overexpress HER2/neu. Moreover, HER2/neu is expressed on healthy cells, and trastuzumab application is associated with side effects. In contrast, the ligands of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D (NKG2DL) are selectively expressed on malignant cells. In this study, we took advantage of the tumor-associated expression of NKG2DL by using them as target Ags for NKG2D-IgG1 fusion proteins optimized by amino acid exchange S239D/I332E in their Fc part. Compared to constructs with wild-type Fc parts, fusion proteins carrying the S239D/I332E modification (NKG2D-Fc-ADCC) mediated highly enhanced degranulation, ADCC, and IFN-gamma production of NK cells in response to breast cancer cells. NKG2D-Fc-ADCC substantially enhanced NK reactivity also against HER2/neu-low targets that were unaffected by trastuzumab, as both compounds mediated their immunostimulatory effects in strict dependence of target Ag expression levels. Thus, in line with the hierarchically organized potential of the various activating receptors governing NK reactivity and due to its highly increased affinity to CD16, NKG2D-Fc-ADCC potently enhances NK cell reactivity despite the inevitable reduction of activating signals upon binding to NKG2DL. Due to the tumor-restricted expression of NKG2DL, NKG2D-Fc-ADCC may constitute an attractive means for immunotherapy especially of HER2/neu-low or -negative breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25217158
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  • 3
    Keywords: MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; T-CELLS ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; EFFECTOR FUNCTION ; SINGLE-CHAIN ANTIBODY ; malignant ascites ; ADVANCED OVARIAN-CARCINOMA ; CELL-ENGAGING ANTIBODY ; POTENT IN-VITRO
    Abstract: FLT3 is a receptor-tyrosine-kinase that is expressed on leukemic cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineage rather specifically. We here report on the construction and selection of bispecific FLT3 X CD3 antibodies in a new recombinant format, termed Fabsc, that resembles the normal antibody structure more closely than the well-established bispecific single chain (bssc)-format. Our preferred antibody, which emerged from an initial selection procedure utilizing different FLT3- and CD3-antibodies, contains the FLT3-antibody 4G8 and the CD3-antibody UCHT1. The 4G8 X UCHT1 Fabsc-antibody was found to be superior to a bssc-antibody with identical specificities with respect to (i) affinity to the target antigen FLT3, (ii) production yield by transfected cells, and (iii) the diminished formation of aggregates. T-cell activation in the presence and absence of cultured leukemic cells and killing of these cells was comparable for both molecules. In addition, the 4G8 X UCHT1 Fabsc-antibody was found to induce T-cell activation and efficient killing of leukemic blasts in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. In these experiments, the bispecific molecule was clearly superior to an Fc-optimized monospecific FLT3-antibody described previously, indicating that within PBMC of AML patients the recruitment of T cells is more effective than that of natural killer cells.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25578618
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