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  • 1
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; BREAST-CANCER ; statistics ; UNITED-STATES ; SURVIVAL RATES ; SEER program ; RECORD LINKAGE ERRORS ; INCOMPLETE REGISTRATION ; EARLY 21ST-CENTURY ; TRACE-BACK
    Abstract: Background: The proportion of cases notified by death certificate only (DCO) is a commonly used criterion to judge completeness of cancer registration even though it is affected by additional factors, particularly during initial years of newly established registries. Methods: Based on cancer registry data from the United States, we provide model calculations to demonstrate the magnitude and time course of the impact of the following mechanisms on DCO proportions of "young" registries: registration of cancer deaths from patients diagnosed prior to the registration period and delayed registration by death certificate of patients diagnosed but not reported after initiation of registration. Results: DCO proportions of up to 〉= 30% can be expected from deaths of previously diagnosed patients during the first year of registration. Although this proportion is expected to gradually diminish over subsequent years, DCO proportions may be dominated for several years by this source, which may still be relevant after 10 or more years of cancer registration for cancers with relatively large proportions of late deaths. Otherwise, however, underreporting during patients' lifetime is expected to become the predominant source of DCO proportions in the long run. Conclusions: Our results may guide interpretation of DCO proportions of relatively "young" cancer registries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23084081
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  • 2
    Keywords: DIAGNOSIS ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; INEQUALITIES ; PATIENT SURVIVAL ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; ENGLAND ; UP-TO-DATE ; REGIONAL DEPRIVATION
    Abstract: Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24259308
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  • 3
    Keywords: PATHWAY ; THERAPY ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; prognosis ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; microsatellite instability ; colonoscopy ; DRUGS ; BETA-BLOCKER USE
    Abstract: Background: Statins have been associated with moderate reductions in mortality among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but these studies lacked adjustment for some potentially relevant factors associated with statin use. We aimed to provide more detailed results on this association from a population-based patient cohort study. Methods: Use of statins and other risk or protective factors were assessed in standardized interviews with 2697 patients from southern Germany with a diagnosis of incident CRC between 2003 and 2009 (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhutung durch Screening [DACHS] study). Follow-up included assessment of therapy details, recurrence, vital status, and cause of death. Information about molecular pathological subtypes of CRC was available for 1209 patients. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Patients were age 68 years on average, 412 used statins (15%), and 769 died during follow-up (29%). After a median follow-up time of 3.4 years, use of statins was not associated with overall (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.41), CRC-specific (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.50), or recurrence-free survival (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.27). Analyses in relevant subgroups also showed no association of statin use with overall and CRC-specific survival, and no associations were observed after stratifying for major pathological subtypes. Among stage I and II patients, statin use was associated with better recurrence-free but not with better CRC-specific survival. Conclusions: Statin use was not associated with reduced mortality among CRC patients. Effects reported in previous studies might reflect incomplete control for stage at diagnosis and other factors associated with the use of statins.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25770147
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  • 4
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; SURGERY ; RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; COLON-CANCER ; LIFE-STYLE ; METAANALYSIS ; CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS ; INHIBITS APOPTOSIS
    Abstract: Current evidence on the association between smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis after diagnosis is heterogeneous and few have investigated dose-response effects or outcomes other than overall survival. Therefore, the association of smoking status and intensity with several prognostic outcomes was evaluated in a large population-based cohort of CRC patients; 3,130 patients with incident CRC, diagnosed between 2003 and 2010, were interviewed on sociodemographic factors, smoking behavior, medication and comorbidities. Tumor characteristics were collected from medical records. Vital status, recurrence and cause of death were documented for a median follow-up time of 4.9 years. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, associations between smoking characteristics and overall, CRC-specific, non-CRC related, recurrence-free and disease-free survival were evaluated. Among stage I-III patients, being a smoker at diagnosis and smoking 15 cigarettes/day were associated with lower recurrence-free (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.79 and aHR: 1.31; 95%-CI: 0.92-1.87) and disease-free survival (aHR: 1.26; 95%-CI: 0.95-1.67 and aHR: 1.29; 95%-CI: 0.94-1.77). Smoking was associated with decreased survival in stage I-III smokers with pack years 20 (Overall survival: aHR: 1.40; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.95), in colon cancer cases (Overall survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.05-2.17) and men (Recurrence-free survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.09-2.10; disease-free survival: aHR: 1.49; 95%-CI: 1.12-1.97), whereas no associations were seen among women, stage IV or rectal cancer patients. The observed patterns support the existence of adverse effects of smoking on CRC prognosis among nonmetastatic CRC patients. The potential to enhance prognosis of CRC patients by promotion of smoking cessation, embedded in tertiary prevention programs warrants careful evaluation in future investigations. What's new? Smoking is an established risk factor for a variety of cancers, including colorectal cancer, but evidence regarding its impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients remains sparse. In this population-based study of 3,130 colorectal cancer patients, smoking was associated with reduced survival among patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer. The analyses suggested that the association may be more pronounced in men than women. Future studies should take into account relationships between smoking and other lifestyle factors and should explore the potential role of using the teachable moment of cancer diagnosis in the promotion of smoking cessation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25758762
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  • 5
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; EUROPE ; RECENT TRENDS ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; THICKNESS ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; cancer survival
    Abstract: Background Prior analyses of survival of patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma from Germany were based only on small populations and need to be updated. Objectives We give a detailed overview of relative 5-year survival by sex, age group, histology, tumour stage and body site, and of time trends in a population of 33 million (40% of Germany), and compare survival in the federal states. Methods Conventional and model-based period analysis using the Ederer II method was applied to patients with melanoma diagnosed during 1997-2006 in Germany to assess 5-year relative survival (RS) rates and time trends. Results In total, 37 155 melanoma cases were included. Overall age-adjusted 5-year RS for the time period 2002-2006 was 91.9% for women and 87.0% for men. Survival differences by age group, histology, tumour stage and body site were found. No significant overall trend (2002-2006) was seen either in women or in men. Differences in survival between federal states were small; no clear pattern was seen. Conclusions Based on the most recent and high-quality data from population-based cancer registries a comprehensive picture on melanoma survival in Germany was given. Survival from cutaneous malignant melanoma was high compared with other cancer sites and did not change during the analysed period 2002-2006. Patterns in melanoma survival by sex, age, tumour stage, histology and body site were in good agreement with previously published findings. No relevant differences between federal states were found.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22564081
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  • 6
    Keywords: carcinoma ; CLASSIFICATION ; MORTALITY ; TUMORS ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; ENGLAND ; WALES ; EUROCARE-4
    Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide detailed age-specific (5-year age groups) and histology-specific (histologic subtypes of seminoma and nonseminoma) relative survival estimates of testicular germ cell cancer patients in Germany and the United States (U.S.) for the years 2002-2006 and to compare these estimates between countries. Methods: We pooled data from 11 cancer registries of Germany and used data from the U.S. (SEER-13 database) including 11,508 and 10,774 newly diagnosed cases (1997-2006) in Germany and the U.S., respectively. We estimated 5-year relative survival (5-year-RS) by histology and age based on period analysis. Results: 5-year-RS for testicular germ cell tumors was 96.7% and 96.3% in Germany and the U.S., respectively. 5-Year-RS for spermatocytic seminoma was close to 100% in both countries. 5-Year-RS for nonseminoma was lower than for classical seminoma in Germany (93.3% versus 97.6%) and the U.S. (91.0% versus 98.2%). Among nonseminomas, choriocarcinomas provided the lowest 5-year-RS in both countries (Germany 80.1%, U.S. 79.6%). Age-specific 5-year-RS for seminoma showed only little variation by age. 5-Year-RS for nonseminomas tended to be lower at higher ages, especially for malignant teratoma. Discussion: This is the first study that provides up-to-date survival estimates for testicular cancer by histology and age in Germany and the U.S. Survival after a diagnosis of testicular cancer is very comparable between Germany and the U.S. 5-Year-RS for spermatocytic seminoma was close to 100% and the lowest 5-year-RS occurred among choriocarcinoma. Higher age at diagnosis is associated with a poorer prognosis among nonseminoma patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23623488
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  • 7
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; THERAPY ; MORTALITY ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; WOMEN ; smoking ; HYPERTENSION ; METAANALYSIS ; bias
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been postulated that long-term use of beta blockers might decrease the risk of certain types of cancer because of weakening of norepinephrine signaling. Previous studies on colorectal cancer (CRC) yielded inconsistent results, but lacked information on covariates. Thus, the authors investigated the association of beta blocker use and CRC risk in a large population-based case-control study (DACHS study). METHODS: Between 2003 and 2007, information on beta blocker use and potential confounders was collected by personal interviews for 1762 CRC cases and 1708 control individuals from Germany. The association of CRC risk and beta blocker use and subclasses of beta blockers was estimated by multiple logistic regression. In addition, site- and stage-specific analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates, no association was observed with beta blocker use (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-1.29) or with duration of beta blocker use. Also, the analysis by subclasses of beta blockers (cardioselectivity) and active ingredients (metoprolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, and atenolol) or by CRC subsite showed no associations. In stage-specific analyses, long-term beta blocker use (6+ years) was associated with a significantly higher risk of stage IV CRC (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.25-3.27). CONCLUSIONS: Our adjusted results do not support the hypothesis that beta blocker use is associated with decreased risk of CRC. In contrast, we found a positive association of long-term beta blocker use and risk of stage IV CRC. The latter result should be further evaluated in future studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22585669
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  • 8
    Keywords: PROTECTION ; DEATH ; MORTALITY ; ASSOCIATION ; prevention ; EFFICACY ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; ENDOSCOPY ; POLYPECTOMY ; sigmoidoscopy
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data from randomized controlled trials on the effects of screening colonoscopies on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are not available. Observational studies have suggested that colonoscopies strongly reduce the risk of CRC, but there is little specific evidence on the effects of screening colonoscopies. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study of 3148 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC (cases) and 3274 subjects without CRC (controls) from the Rhine-Neckar region of Germany from 2003 to 2010. Detailed information on previous colonoscopy and potential confounding factors was collected by standardized personal interviews. Self-reported information on colonoscopies and their indications was validated by medical records. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between colonoscopy conducted for specific indications within the past 10 years and risk of CRC. RESULTS: A history of colonoscopy was associated with a reduced subsequent risk of CRC, independently of the indication for the examination. However, somewhat stronger associations were found for examinations with screening indications (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.13) than for examinations with diagnostic indications, such as positive fecal occult blood test result (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.57), surveillance after a preceding colonoscopy (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.24-0.45), rectal bleeding (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.20-0.40), abdominal symptoms (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.10-0.21), or other (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.14-0.30). Colonoscopy was also associated with a reduced risk of cancer in the right colon, regardless of the indication, although to a smaller extent than for other areas of the colon (OR for screening colonoscopy, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.14-0.33). CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based case-control study, the risk of CRC was strongly reduced up to 10 years after colonoscopy for any indication. Risk was particularly low after screening colonoscopy, even for cancer in the right colon.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24012982
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