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  • Organic Chemistry  (4)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Spinal cord, central canal ; Syringomyelia ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral 1/3 and dorsal 2/3 of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: White matter ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Alzheimer's disease ; Corpus callosum ; Signal hyperintensity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously demonstrated with MRI that as well as marked white matter involvement in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), atrophy of the corpus callosum may also be present. This finding prompted us to study possible correlations between atrophy of the corpus callosum and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and between white matter lesions and the severity of the disease. We compared the corpus callosum and white matter lesions on MRI from 15 AD patients and 15 controls. The white matter lesions were scored according to the Scheltens' rating scale. We found a significant reduction of the area of the corpus callosum and more severe white matter lesions in AD patients than in controls. Both atrophy of the corpus callosum and the severity of lesions depended mainly on the diagnosis of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and on age but not on the diagnosis of presenile AD. We demonstrated a negative correlation between white matter lesions scores and areas of corpus callosum in AD patients and no correlation between the white matter lesions and the severity of the disease. We demonstrated that white matter lesions including WMH and atrophy of the corpus callosum are more frequent in AD than in controls. The predominance of white matter lesions in senile AD may be explained by the combination of aging and disease processes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis ; Amygdala Hippocampus ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) and their relationship to the volume of temporal lesions and to amygdala and hippocampus damage remain undefined. We have conducted a prospective study of longterm sequelae in 11 patients with clinically presumed HSVE and detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Six months after encephalitis, patients underwent neuropsychological and language assessment. At the same stage, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) evaluated the occurrence of hypoperfusion with an index of asymmetry. MRI was used for the measurement of amygdala, hippocampus and cerebral lesions by two blind neurologists. The volume of the amygdala and hippocampus was compared with those of five controls, matched for age and level of education. Longterm memory disorders were seen in 6 patients, associated with the larger lesions and damage of at least two structures. Long-term behavioural changes with emotionalism, irritability, anxiety or depression were prominent in 7. Left prefrontal hypoperfusion appeared in 8 patients, associated with psychiatric disorders in 7 and left amygdala damage in 6. The reduction of amygdala and hippocampus volume was correlated with the overall volume of lesions. Different patterns of mesial temporal lobe damage occurred, involving either amygdala alone, or amygdala and hippocampus, but never hippocampus alone. MRI volumetric measurements in HSVE could be a good indicator of long-term prognosis. Persistant behavioural changes could be related to an amygdala and frontal dysfunction.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Solvolysis Mechanism of cis - and trans-2-Arylcylopentyl p-Toluenesulfonates. The Step: 1-Deuterium Isotope Effects, Basic Salt Effects, and Special Salt EffectWe have studied the first step of the solvolysis of cis and trans-2-arylcyclopentyl p-toluenesulfonates in HCOOH, AcOH, and EtOh. All substrates show a high kinetic 1-deuterium isotope effect (kH/kD(1) 〉1.15). This fact indicates that first step leads to classical intimate ion-pair Which dissociates to a solvet-separated ion-pair, without participation either of solvent, the 2-aryl group, or a H-atom at C(2). The slight influence of added basic ions on reaction rate allows us to exclude any direct solvent attack on the covalent substrate even in the most favorable case, i.e. ethanolysis of 2-(p-nitrophenyl)cylopentyl-p-toluenesulfonates. Furthermore, solvent-separated ion pair formation is indicated by the special salt effect induced by LiClO4.
    Notes: No abstract.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reaction of Di(tert-butyl)- and Diphenyldiazomethane and 1,3-Thiazole-5(4H)-thiones: Isolation and Crystal Structure of the Primary CycloadductReactions of diazo compounds with C=S bonds proceed via the formation of thiocarbonyl ylides, which, under the reaction conditions, undergo either 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions or electrocyclic ring closer to thiiranes (Scheme 1). With the sterically hindered di(tert-butyl)diazomethane (2c), 1,3-thiazole-5(4H)-thiones 1 react to give spirocyclic 2,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 3 (Scheme 2). These adducts are stable in solution at -20°, and they could be isolated in crystalline form. The structure of 3c was established by X-ray crystallography. In CDCl3 solution at room temperature, a cycloreversion occurs, and the adducts of type 3 are in an equilibrium with 1 and 2c. In contrast, the reaction of 1 with diphenyldiazomethane (2d) gave spirocyclic thiiranes 4 as the only product in high yield (Scheme 3). The crystal structure of 4b was also determined by X-ray analysis. The desulfurization of compounds 4 to 4,5-dihydro-5-(diphenylmethylidene)-1,3-thiazoles 5 was achieved by treating 4 with triphenylphosphine in boiling THF. The crystal structure of 5f is shown.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reaction of Phenyldiazomethane with 1,3-Thiazole-5(4H)-thiones: Base-Catalyzed Ring Opening of the Primary AdductReaction of 1,3-thiazole-5(4H)-thiones 1 and phenyldiazomethane (2a) in toluene at room temperature yields the thiiranes trans- and cis-1,4-dithia-6-azaspiro[2.4]hept-5-enes (trans- and cis-4; Scheme 2). With Ph3P in THF at 70°, these thiiranes are transformed stereospecifically into (E)- and (Z)-5-benzylidene-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazoles 5, respectively. In the presence of DBU, 1 and 2a react to give 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives 6 or 7 via base-catalyzed ring opening of the primary cycloadduct (Scheme 3). In the case of 2-(alkylthio)-substituted 1,3-thiazole-5(4H)-thiones 1c and 1d, this ring opening proceeds by elimination of the corresponding alkylthiolate, yielding isothiocyanate 7. The structures of (Z)-5c and 6b have been established by X-ray crystallography.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: solvent ; basic medium ; competitive solubilities ; optimization ; optical resolution ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Several preparative resolutions of 5,5-disubstituted hydantoins have been achieved via fractional crystallization of diastereoisomeric salts. The process can be extended by making use of the difference between the variation of solubilities of the hydantoins and their salts with α-methylbenzylamine as a function of the alkalinity of the medium. Optimization for each resolution procedure involves a refinement of the excess amount of base needed. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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