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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Graves, Tina -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Buhay, Christian J -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Shen, Hua -- Holder, Michael -- Villasana, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Cree, Andrew -- Courtney, Laura -- Veizer, Joelle -- Kotkiewicz, Holland -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- R01 HG000257/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG000257-17/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;483(7387):82-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. jhughes@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Amplification/genetics ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Radiation Hybrid Mapping ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Time Factors ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):263-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25302356" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged, 80 and over ; *Caregivers/psychology ; Female ; Humans ; Long-Term Care/*organization & administration ; Male ; *Parents ; *Research Personnel/psychology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-09-22
    Description: Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of approximately 900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes involved with synaptic transmission. The neocortex displays a relatively homogeneous transcriptional pattern, but with distinct features associated selectively with primary sensorimotor cortices and with enriched frontal lobe expression. Notably, the spatial topography of the neocortex is strongly reflected in its molecular topography-the closer two cortical regions, the more similar their transcriptomes. This freely accessible online data resource forms a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4243026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4243026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hawrylycz, Michael J -- Lein, Ed S -- Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L -- Shen, Elaine H -- Ng, Lydia -- Miller, Jeremy A -- van de Lagemaat, Louie N -- Smith, Kimberly A -- Ebbert, Amanda -- Riley, Zackery L -- Abajian, Chris -- Beckmann, Christian F -- Bernard, Amy -- Bertagnolli, Darren -- Boe, Andrew F -- Cartagena, Preston M -- Chakravarty, M Mallar -- Chapin, Mike -- Chong, Jimmy -- Dalley, Rachel A -- Daly, Barry David -- Dang, Chinh -- Datta, Suvro -- Dee, Nick -- Dolbeare, Tim A -- Faber, Vance -- Feng, David -- Fowler, David R -- Goldy, Jeff -- Gregor, Benjamin W -- Haradon, Zeb -- Haynor, David R -- Hohmann, John G -- Horvath, Steve -- Howard, Robert E -- Jeromin, Andreas -- Jochim, Jayson M -- Kinnunen, Marty -- Lau, Christopher -- Lazarz, Evan T -- Lee, Changkyu -- Lemon, Tracy A -- Li, Ling -- Li, Yang -- Morris, John A -- Overly, Caroline C -- Parker, Patrick D -- Parry, Sheana E -- Reding, Melissa -- Royall, Joshua J -- Schulkin, Jay -- Sequeira, Pedro Adolfo -- Slaughterbeck, Clifford R -- Smith, Simon C -- Sodt, Andy J -- Sunkin, Susan M -- Swanson, Beryl E -- Vawter, Marquis P -- Williams, Derric -- Wohnoutka, Paul -- Zielke, H Ronald -- Geschwind, Daniel H -- Hof, Patrick R -- Smith, Stephen M -- Koch, Christof -- Grant, Seth G N -- Jones, Allan R -- 066717/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077155/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1C76HF15069-01-00/PHS HHS/ -- 1C76HF19619-01-00/PHS HHS/ -- G0700399/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0802238/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 20;489(7416):391-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11405.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA. mikeh@alleninstitute.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996553" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anatomy, Artistic ; Animals ; *Atlases as Topic ; Brain/*anatomy & histology/cytology/*metabolism ; Calbindins ; Databases, Genetic ; Dopamine/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Health ; Hippocampus/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization ; Internet ; Macaca mulatta/anatomy & histology/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Neocortex/anatomy & histology/cytology/metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Post-Synaptic Density/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; S100 Calcium Binding Protein G/genetics ; Species Specificity ; Transcriptome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 20;507(7492):290-2. doi: 10.1038/507290a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24646978" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Animals ; *Deep Brain Stimulation/instrumentation/trends ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epilepsy/therapy ; Humans ; Male ; Mental Disorders/therapy ; Models, Neurological ; Neural Pathways ; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology/*therapy
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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