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  • nipple discharge  (2)
  • Mammography  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; duct endoscopy ; galactography ; intraductal biopsy of the breast ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Microdochectomy is usually performed on patients with nipple discharge caused by intraductal proliferative lesions, such as intraductal papilloma and carcinoma. But this operation often sacrifices large amounts of normal mammary gland even when the lesion is a benign intraductal papilloma a few millimeters in diameter. We have developed duct endoscopy for the mammary duct system, and have reliably performed biopsies for intraductal proliferative lesions intraductally. From June 1989 to April 1990, we examined 22 cases by duct endoscopy, and performed endoscopic biopsy in 16 cases. The method of endoscopic biopsy is as follows. First, a bougie is inserted, without anesthesia other than Xylocaine jelly, into the orifice of the duct to enlarge it. Second, the outer cylinder and the inner needle are inserted; then the inner needle is removed, and the endoscope is inserted. After examination, the outer cylinder is moved up to the lesion to be biopsied and the endoscope is taken out. Then a sample is taken into the outer cylinder by aspiration. We diagnosed 10 cases of benign lesion and 5 cases of malignant lesion by cytological and/or histological examination. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsy, aided by duct endoscopy, is a useful and harmless diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of nipple discharge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; ductal carcinoma in situ ; Gadolinium-DTPA ; galactography ; magnetic resonance imaging ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new method of galactography using magnetic resonance imaging for a patient with nipple discharge is developed. The method is as follows; coronal T1-weight images are obtained after an injection of contrast medium of 1 mmol/L Gd-DTPA directly into the discharge duct, before and after rapid intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA. A case of a 29-year-old woman with ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasion is reported, in which all portions of the entire discharge duct system is clearly shown as viewed from the surface and the surrounding area is enhanced with Gd-DTPA. The enhanced area is coincidental with the extent of the disease. This magnetic resonance galactography for patients with nipple discharge may be used to supplement conventional mammography and/or galactography especially for the evaluation of the extent of disease, although it is somewhat inferior to mammographic galactography in terms of differential diagnosis of ductal disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; Latent cancer ; Mammography ; Microcalcification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Detection of small or early neoplastic lesions is essential for the secondary prevention of cancer, and for this purpose information concerning their incidence and characteristics is required. Although data for latent or early cancers are available for various organs, details are limited in the case of the breast. The present investigation was carried out to cast light on the incidence of latent cancers, considered as lesions, in women with no symptoms and no palpable mass of the breast. Out of 2126 women visiting our hospital for initial breast examination during July to December in 1987, 542 (25.5%) had no complaint and neither a detectable mass on careful palpation nor a tumor shadow on mammography. However, 21 (3.9%) demonstrated microcalcification, 7 giving the impression of a possible malignancy. Subsequent biopsy of the 7 cases revealed 3 carcinomas. The detection rate of breast cancer in this population was thus 0.6% (3/542). Adopting the frequency (36%) of microcalcification detectable on mammography in 185 breast cancers diagnosed in this period as a base, the incidence of latent breast cancer among women visiting our hospital was calculated to be 1.5%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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