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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Mangifera indica L. ; embryo culture ; recalcitrance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Development of cotyledonary-stage nucellar embryos of mango was arrestedin vitro by exposure to 750–1750 μM ABA. The enlargement and germination of nucellar embryos was inhibited for as long as 4 weeks after subculture from ABA-containing medium. Mannitol at concentrations between 7.5 and 12.5% inhibited nucellar embryo development, presumably due to osmotic effects; however, there was no residual effect after subculture of somatic embryos onto medium without mannitol. Temperatures between 22.5 and 37.5°C stimulated embryo development, whereas lower temperatures (7.5 and 15°C) delayed germination. There was no germination 1 month after somatic embryos, pulsed for 8 weeks at 7.5°C, were transferred to 22.5°C; however, after 2 months, 86% of these somatic embryos germinated. These results indicate that it is possible to induce developmental arrest in recalcitrant mango embryos with high concentrations of ABA, mannitol or low temperature (7.5°C).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Mangifera indica L. ; somatic embryo ; dehydration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Inhibition of mango somatic embryo growth was inducedin vitro by treatments for 4 or more weeks with abscisic acid (0–100 μM ABA) with and without high osmolarity provided by mannitol (0–10%). High osmolarity and ABA significantly affected somatic embryo length, precocious germination and the production of good quality secondary somatic embryos. High osmolarity also affected root elongation. Abscisic acid was more effective in suppressing growth and development of ≥0.5 cm-length somatic embryos than smaller somatic embryos. Development beyond the heart stage was significantly inhibited by both ABA and mannitol treatments. The recovery of good quality somatic embryos was enhanced by high levels of ABA (100 μM) with and without mannitol (0–5%). Somatic embryos that had been pulsed with ABA were partially desiccated at different relative humidities. Weight loss was affected only by relative humidity; and ABA did not enhance desiccation tolerance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: cytochalasin B ; insulin action ; adipocytes ; plasma membranes ; D-glucose transport ; protein reagents ; membrane reconstitution ; Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Sensitivity of the adipocyte D-glucose transport system in intact plasma membranes or following solubilization and reconstitution into phospholipid vesicles to several protein-modifying reagents was investigated. When intact plasma membranes were incubated with N-ethylmaleimide (20 mM) or fluorodinitrobenzene (4 mM), D-glucose transport activity was virtually abolished. However, washing the membranes free of unreacted reagents restored transport activity, indicating that covalent interaction with the membranes did not mediate the transport inhibition. Reaction of [3H] N-ethylmaleimide with plasma membranes under similar conditions resulted in extensive labeling of all protein fractions resolved on dodecyl sulfate gels. Similarly, addition of N-ethyl-maleimide to cholate-solubilized membrane protein had no effect on transport activity in artifical phospholipid vesicles reconstituted under conditions where the membrane protein was free of unreacted N-ethylmaleimide. Transport activity in plasma membranes was also inhibited by both reduced and oxidized dithiothreitol or glutathione (15 mM) in a readily reversible manner, consistent with a noncovalent mode of inhibition. Thus, the insulin-responsive adipocyte D-glucose transport system differs from the red cell hexose transport system in its remarkable insensitivity to modulation by covalent blockade of sulfhydryal or amino groups by the reagents studied.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: dimethylmaleic anhydride ; cytochalasin B ; Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Plasma membrane vesicles prepared from adipocytes incubated with insulin exhibited accelerated D-glucose transport activity characteristic of insulin action on intact fat cells. Both control and insulin-stimulated D-glucose transport activities were inhibited by cytochalasin B and thiol reagents. Extraction of plasma membranes with dimethylmaleic anhydride eluted 80% of the protein from plasma membrane vesicles. The two major glycoprotein bands (94,000 and 78,000 daltons) and small amounts of a 56,000-dalton band were retained in dodecyl sulfate gels of the extracted membranes. Both control and insulin-activated D-glucose transport activities were retained by plasma membrane vesicles extracted with dimethylmaleic anhydride. Cytochalasin B binding activity was also retained by extracted membrane vescles and D-glucose uptake into extracted vescles derived from untreated or insulin-treated fat cells was inhibited by cytochalasin B. These results suggest that the modification of the adipocyte hexose transport system elicited by insulin action is not altered by a major purification step which involves quantitative extraction of extrinsic membrane proteins.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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