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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IIB [2], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] contains the specifications for the operations that provide the arithmetic capabilities for Transparent Query Language. PART IIB references PART IIA [1] and PART IIC [3]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In the six parts of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6], the Transparent Query Language (TQL) that is the mathematical basis for the SOLID Retrieval/Processing System [7] is described and its use demonstrated. TQL is directly responsible for the speed, versatility, security and information/question-type independence of the SOLID System. It can be viewed as a Mathematically Complete (or Philosophically Closed) [8] data structure or content/context independent language capable of describing individual or classes of descriptors in any combination with any degree of specificity. The security system is easily used to prevent unauthorized access to any item in any file. TQL is sufficiently general to be used outside the context of information retrieval. It is capable of concisely representing and manipulating a wide variety of time dependent or static numeric and non-numeric information. The six parts of this document [1–6], are as follows. The first part, PART IIA [1], contains a review of the literature and then introduces the Transparent Query Language. It references PART IIB [2], PART IIC [3], PART IID [4], PART IIE [5] and PART IIF [6]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6]. Section III in PART IIA [1] contains information for converting citations of sections and subsections in the original document to their locations in the partitioned document.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IIC [3], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] is a continuation of [2] and should be studied immediately after reading PART IIB [2]. It describes (i) the security system that can be easily invoked to deny unauthorized access to any item of information in any database; (ii) the special codes that can be used to specify virtually any degree of uncertainty; (iii) the registry numbers which terminate information paths; and (iv) the command structure for the Transportable Query Language. PART IIC references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2], PART IID [4] and PART IIF [6]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IID [4], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] is about normalization and manipulation of information representations. It references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2] and PART IIC [3]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System ; Sequel (SQL) ; Relational Algebra ; QUEL ; Query-By-Example (QBE)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In this part, PART IIE [5], of the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6] the conversion of queries coded in SQL, Relational Algebra, QUEL and Query-By-Examples (QBE) to TQL are demonstrated. PART IIE references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2], PART IID [3] and PART IIF [6]. Concise definitions of Transparent Query Language terms, Conclusions and Acknowledgments are given in PART IIF [6].
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-8787
    Keywords: Transparent Query Language ; Mathematically Complete Language ; Philosophically Closed Language ; SOLID Retrieval/Processing System
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This part, PART IIF [6], concludes the document “HIGH-SPEED TOOLS FOR GLOBAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT. II. Specifications and Uses of the Transparent Query Language (TQL)” [1–6]. It describes novel applications of TQL, the key data structures, and contains a dictionary of Transparent Query Language terms. PART IIF references PART IIA [1], PART IIB [2], PART IIC [3], PART IID [4], and PART IIE [5] and contains Conclusions and Acknowledgements.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol stabilizes or promotes the assembly of microtubules. In this report we characterize the rate, extent, and reversibility of taxol stabilization of calciumlabile microtubules in isolated mitotic spindles, principally from embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma. The intense depolymerizing action of 100 μM Ca2+ was used to assess the extent of stabilization by taxol. Changes in spindle microtubule assembly were evaluated and recorded by measuring changes in spindle birefringent retardation (BR). Membrane-free mitotic spindles, isolated with a calcium-chelating, nonionic detergent buffer, were stored in an EGTA-gylcerol storage buffer to prevent microtubule depolymerization. When perfused with an EGTA-buffer without glycerol, microtubules in these isolated spindles depolymerized gradually over 60-120 min; but in isolated spindles perfused with buffer that contained 100 μM Ca2+, BR decreased by 90% within 2-5 sec. In contrast, spindles that were pretreated for 3 min with 1 μM taxol, or for about 30 sec with 10 μM taxol, lost less than 10% of their initial BR when perfused with buffer containing 100 μM Ca2+. The rate and extent of microtubule stabilization by taxol depended on both the concentration and the duration of exposure to taxol. Taxol stabilization was reversible. After a 15 min preincubation with 1 μM or 10 μM taxol then washout, stability of spindle BR to 100 μM Ca2+ decreased exponentially with a time constant of 30-60 min. Thus taxol dissociates from spindle microtubules at significant rates; taxol-stabilized microtubules are not “fixed.”
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: dynein ; erythro-9-[3-2-(hydroxynonyl)]adenine (EHNA) ; ATPase ; inhibition ; axoneme ; cytoplasm ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In current purification strategies, affinity for microtubules or calmodulin is used to identify and purify cytoplasmic dynein-like ATPase from cell-free extracts of unfertilized sea urchin eggs. However, affinity purification procedures, though they define dynein-like ATPase activity, have not yet proven to be quantitative. An alternative purification strategy capable of producing a high yield of enzyme would require a specific assay in order to monitor cytoplasmic dynein purity at each step.In this study, we make a detailed comparison of the effects of EHNA on 22 different ATP-metabolizing enzyme activities, including 13 Mg++-ATPases. We isolate cytoplasmic dynein-like ATPase activity from three species of sea urchin eggs and sperm and show by means of dose-response curves that their sensitivities to inhibition by EHNA are very similar to one another. We demonstrate further that the EHNA dose-response characteristics of fourteen other ATP-metabolizing enzyme activities, including seven nondynein Mg++-ATPases, differ quantitatively from those of dynein-like ATPases.In studies of three other agents (vanadate, Ca++/calmodulin, and Triton X-100), we find that dynein-like ATPases vary by two orders of magnitude in their sensitivities to inhibition by vanadate, and little or no stimulation by either Ca++/calmodulin or Triton X-100 is seen. Our results suggest that inhibition by EHNA is a universal and specific property of dynein-like ATPases, which ultimately should prove useful in the quantitative purification and characterization of cytoplasmic dynein-like ATPase (s).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 2 (1982), S. 121-126 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cardiac muscle ; actin dynamics ; α-actinin ; vinculin ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When fluorescently labeled contractile proteins are injected into embryonic muscle cells, they become incorporated into the cells' myofibrils. In order to determine if this exchange of proteins is unique to the embryonic stage of development, we isolated adult cardiac myocytes and microinjected them with fluorescently labeled actin, myosin light chains, α-actinin, and vinculin. Each of these proteins was incorporated into the adult cardiomyocytes and was colocalized with the cells'native proteins, despite the fact that the labeled proteins were prepared from noncardiac tissues. Within 10 min of injection, α-actinin was incorporated into Z-bands surrounding the site of injection. Similarly, 30 sec after injection, actin was incorporated into the entire I-bands at the site of injection. Following a 3-h incubation, increased actin fluorescence was noted at the intercalated disc. Vinculin exchange was seen in the intercalated discs, as well as in the Z-bands throug hout the cells. Myosin light chains required 4-6 h after injection to become incorporated into the A-bands of the adult muscle. Nonspecific proteins, such as fluorescent BSA, showed no association with the myofibrils or the former intercalated discs. When adult cells were maintained in culture for 10 days, they retain the ability to incorporate these contractile proteins into their myofibrils. T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum could be detected in periodic arrays in the freshly isolated cells using the membrane dye WW781 and DiOC3[3], respectively. In conclusion, the myofibrils in adult, as in embryonic, muscle cells are dynamic structures, permitting isoform transitions without dismantling of the myofibrils.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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