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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: Determining the signalling pathways that direct tissue expansion is a principal goal of regenerative biology. Vigorous pancreatic beta-cell replication in juvenile mice and humans declines with age, and elucidating the basis for this decay may reveal strategies for inducing beta-cell expansion, a long-sought goal for diabetes therapy. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor receptor (Pdgfr) signalling controls age-dependent beta-cell proliferation in mouse and human pancreatic islets. With age, declining beta-cell Pdgfr levels were accompanied by reductions in beta-cell enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (Ezh2) levels and beta-cell replication. Conditional inactivation of the Pdgfra gene in beta-cells accelerated these changes, preventing mouse neonatal beta-cell expansion and adult beta-cell regeneration. Targeted human PDGFR-alpha activation in mouse beta-cells stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, leading to Ezh2-dependent expansion of adult beta-cells. Adult human islets lack PDGF signalling competence, but exposure of juvenile human islets to PDGF-AA stimulated beta-cell proliferation. The discovery of a conserved pathway controlling age-dependent beta-cell proliferation indicates new strategies for beta-cell expansion.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3503246/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3503246/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Hainan -- Gu, Xueying -- Liu, Yinghua -- Wang, Jing -- Wirt, Stacey E -- Bottino, Rita -- Schorle, Hubert -- Sage, Julien -- Kim, Seung K -- R01 CA114102/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056709/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072184/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075919/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009302/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK089532/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK89532/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK89572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7369):349-55. doi: 10.1038/nature10502.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology ; E2F Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics ; Humans ; Insulin-Secreting Cells/*cytology/enzymology/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 ; Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/*metabolism ; Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-10-29
    Description: Integrins have a critical role in thrombosis and haemostasis. Antagonists of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 are potent anti-thrombotic drugs, but also have the life-threatening adverse effect of causing bleeding. It is therefore desirable to develop new antagonists that do not cause bleeding. Integrins transmit signals bidirectionally. Inside-out signalling activates integrins through a talin-dependent mechanism. Integrin ligation mediates thrombus formation and outside-in signalling, which requires Galpha13 and greatly expands thrombi. Here we show that Galpha13 and talin bind to mutually exclusive but distinct sites within the integrin beta3 cytoplasmic domain in opposing waves. The first talin-binding wave mediates inside-out signalling and also ligand-induced integrin activation, but is not required for outside-in signalling. Integrin ligation induces transient talin dissociation and Galpha13 binding to an EXE motif (in which X denotes any residue), which selectively mediates outside-in signalling and platelet spreading. The second talin-binding wave is associated with clot retraction. An EXE-motif-based inhibitor of Galpha13-integrin interaction selectively abolishes outside-in signalling without affecting integrin ligation, and suppresses occlusive arterial thrombosis without affecting bleeding time. Thus, we have discovered a new mechanism for the directional switch of integrin signalling and, on the basis of this mechanism, designed a potent new anti-thrombotic drug that does not cause bleeding.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823815/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823815/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Bo -- Zhao, Xiaojuan -- O'Brien, Kelly A -- Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra -- Delaney, M Keegan -- Kim, Kyungho -- Cho, Jaehyung -- Lam, Stephen C-T -- Du, Xiaoping -- HL062350/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL080264/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL109439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL080264/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL109439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007829/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 7;503(7474):131-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12613. Epub 2013 Oct 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162846" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antithrombins/adverse effects/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Binding Sites ; Bleeding Time ; *Cell Polarity ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13/metabolism ; Hemorrhage/chemically induced ; Humans ; Integrin beta3/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Integrins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction/*drug effects ; Talin/metabolism ; Thrombosis/*drug therapy/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Description: The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koike, Nobuya -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung-Chung -- Kumar, Vivek -- Lee, Choogon -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS053616/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):349-54. doi: 10.1126/science.1226339. Epub 2012 Aug 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Animals ; CLOCK Proteins/metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Circadian Clocks/*genetics ; Cryptochromes/*genetics ; DNA, Intergenic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Loci ; Histones/metabolism ; Liver/metabolism/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Period Circadian Proteins/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; *Transcriptional Activation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-21
    Description: The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. However, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. We found that C57BL/6N has a lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine. We mapped a single causative locus and identified a nonsynonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) as the causative variant. The S968F mutation destabilizes CYFIP2, and deletion of the C57BL/6N mutant allele leads to acute and sensitized cocaine-response phenotypes. We propose that CYFIP2 is a key regulator of cocaine response in mammals and present a framework to use mouse substrains to identify previously unknown genes and alleles regulating behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kumar, Vivek -- Kim, Kyungin -- Joseph, Chryshanthi -- Kourrich, Said -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung Chung -- Vitaterna, Martha H -- de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel -- Churchill, Gary -- Bonci, Antonello -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH61915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1508-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1245503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage ; Cocaine/*administration & dosage ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/*genetics/*psychology ; *Drug-Seeking Behavior ; Methamphetamine/administration & dosage ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Phenylalanine/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Psychomotor Performance/drug effects ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; Serine/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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