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  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (243)
  • Animals  (201)
  • Mice  (123)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-16
    Description: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of conditions characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours. ASD is a highly heritable disorder involving various genetic determinants. Shank2 (also known as ProSAP1) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein and signalling adaptor enriched at excitatory neuronal synapses, and mutations in the human SHANK2 gene have recently been associated with ASD and intellectual disability. Although ASD-associated genes are being increasingly identified and studied using various approaches, including mouse genetics, further efforts are required to delineate important causal mechanisms with the potential for therapeutic application. Here we show that Shank2-mutant (Shank2(-/-)) mice carrying a mutation identical to the ASD-associated microdeletion in the human SHANK2 gene exhibit ASD-like behaviours including reduced social interaction, reduced social communication by ultrasonic vocalizations, and repetitive jumping. These mice show a marked decrease in NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptor (NMDAR) function. Direct stimulation of NMDARs with D-cycloserine, a partial agonist of NMDARs, normalizes NMDAR function and improves social interaction in Shank2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, treatment of Shank2(-/-) mice with a positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), which enhances NMDAR function via mGluR5 activation, also normalizes NMDAR function and markedly enhances social interaction. These results suggest that reduced NMDAR function may contribute to the development of ASD-like phenotypes in Shank2(-/-) mice, and mGluR modulation of NMDARs offers a potential strategy to treat ASD.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Won, Hyejung -- Lee, Hye-Ryeon -- Gee, Heon Yung -- Mah, Won -- Kim, Jae-Ick -- Lee, Jiseok -- Ha, Seungmin -- Chung, Changuk -- Jung, Eun Suk -- Cho, Yi Sul -- Park, Sae-Geun -- Lee, Jung-Soo -- Lee, Kyungmin -- Kim, Daesoo -- Bae, Yong Chul -- Kaang, Bong-Kiun -- Lee, Min Goo -- Kim, Eunjoon -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jun 13;486(7402):261-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11208.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22699620" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/*genetics ; Animals ; Antimetabolites/pharmacology ; *Autistic Disorder/genetics/metabolism ; Behavior, Animal/*drug effects/physiology ; Benzamides/*pharmacology ; Cycloserine/*pharmacology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*genetics ; Pyrazoles/*pharmacology ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/*agonists/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-19
    Description: Many procedures in modern clinical medicine rely on the use of electronic implants in treating conditions that range from acute coronary events to traumatic injury. However, standard permanent electronic hardware acts as a nidus for infection: bacteria form biofilms along percutaneous wires, or seed haematogenously, with the potential to migrate within the body and to provoke immune-mediated pathological tissue reactions. The associated surgical retrieval procedures, meanwhile, subject patients to the distress associated with re-operation and expose them to additional complications. Here, we report materials, device architectures, integration strategies, and in vivo demonstrations in rats of implantable, multifunctional silicon sensors for the brain, for which all of the constituent materials naturally resorb via hydrolysis and/or metabolic action, eliminating the need for extraction. Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure and temperature illustrates functionality essential to the treatment of traumatic brain injury; the measurement performance of our resorbable devices compares favourably with that of non-resorbable clinical standards. In our experiments, insulated percutaneous wires connect to an externally mounted, miniaturized wireless potentiostat for data transmission. In a separate set-up, we connect a sensor to an implanted (but only partially resorbable) data-communication system, proving the principle that there is no need for any percutaneous wiring. The devices can be adapted to sense fluid flow, motion, pH or thermal characteristics, in formats that are compatible with the body's abdomen and extremities, as well as the deep brain, suggesting that the sensors might meet many needs in clinical medicine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Seung-Kyun -- Murphy, Rory K J -- Hwang, Suk-Won -- Lee, Seung Min -- Harburg, Daniel V -- Krueger, Neil A -- Shin, Jiho -- Gamble, Paul -- Cheng, Huanyu -- Yu, Sooyoun -- Liu, Zhuangjian -- McCall, Jordan G -- Stephen, Manu -- Ying, Hanze -- Kim, Jeonghyun -- Park, Gayoung -- Webb, R Chad -- Lee, Chi Hwan -- Chung, Sangjin -- Wie, Dae Seung -- Gujar, Amit D -- Vemulapalli, Bharat -- Kim, Albert H -- Lee, Kyung-Mi -- Cheng, Jianjun -- Huang, Younggang -- Lee, Sang Hoon -- Braun, Paul V -- Ray, Wilson Z -- Rogers, John A -- F31MH101956/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):71-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16492. Epub 2016 Jan 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea. ; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632, Singapore. ; Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-713, South Korea. ; Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, The Center for Implantable Devices, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, South Korea. ; Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779949" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Absorbable Implants/adverse effects ; Administration, Cutaneous ; Animals ; Body Temperature ; Brain/*metabolism/surgery ; Electronics/*instrumentation ; Equipment Design ; Hydrolysis ; Male ; Monitoring, Physiologic/adverse effects/*instrumentation ; Organ Specificity ; Pressure ; *Prostheses and Implants/adverse effects ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred Lew ; *Silicon ; Telemetry/instrumentation ; Wireless Technology/instrumentation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Enantiomer resolution ; Chiral stationary phase ; Derivated cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new β-cyclodextrin derivatives, heptakis(6-O-isopropyldi-methylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(6-O-thexyldi-methylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and heptakis(6-O-cy-clohexyldimethyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (IPDE-β-CD, TXDE-β-CD, and CHDE-β-CD), were synthesized and the enan-tioselectivities of these three CD derivatives and heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TBDE-β-CD) were compared for GC separation of a range of chiral test com-pounds. In particular TXDE-β-CD showed much higher enentio-selectivity than TBDE-β-CD. Enentioselectivities of IPDE-β-CD and CHDE-β-CD are somewhat lower than that of TXDE-β-CD and CHDE-β-Cd are somewhat lower than that of TXDE-β-CD. These observations are indicative of significant effects of subtle changes in the structure of the 6-O-substituent on the enantioselec-tivity of the β-CD derivatives. The difference in enantioselectivities of the 6-O-substituted CD derivatives were explained in terms of relative contributions of the effects of hydrophobicity and steric hindrance of the substituent to the inclusion process. CHDE-β-CD showed the lowest enantioselectivity among the threederivatives. It is likely that the unfavorable steric hindrance of the bulky cyclo-hexyl group plays a greater role than the favorable hydrophobicity effect of the cyclohexyl group in the inclusion process in CHDE-β-CD. IPDE-β-CD showed lower selectivity than TXDE-β-CD and TBDE-β-CD. In the case of these CD derivatives having acyclic substituents the relative hydrophobicity of the substituent seems to be a dominant factor affecting the inclusion process. Isopropyl groups factor affecting the inclusion process. Isopropyl groups are less hydrophobic than thexyl and tert-butyl groups.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Enantiomer resolution ; Chiral stationary phases ; Derivatized cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new chiral selectors, 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-diethyl-a-cyclodextrin, 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-diethyl- and dipropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TBDE-α-CD, TBDE-β-CD, TBDP-β-CD) were synthesized and tested as chiral stationary phases in capillary gas chromatography. TBDE-β-CD in particular showed a high enan-tioselectivity for test chiral compounds due to good solubility in a polar polysiloxane (OV-1701). Enantioselectivity obtained with TBDE-β-CD was compared with that of 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TBDM-β-CD). Better enantiose-lectivity was obtained with TBDE-P-CD than with TBDM-β-CD for the test chiral compounds studied. This is probably due to greater effect of the increased hydrophobicity of TBDE-β-CD which favors inclusion of the analytes than the effect of increased steric hindrance. With TBDP-β-CD the less polar lactones are well separated due most likely to increased hydrophobicity of the propyl groups while the more polar are not well resolved. For TBDP-β-CD it is likely that the unfavorable steric hindrance is predominant over the favorable hydrophobicity of the propyl groups, thus hindering the formation of inclusion complexes of the alcohols with TBDP-β-CD. TBDE-α-CD was also a valuable chiral selector for the separation of small chiral molecules such as simple secondary alcohols and nitro-substituted alcohols.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: A,C- and A,D-bridged calix[6]arene ; stationary phase ; capillary gas chromatography ; geometric and positional isomer separation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A,C-Bridged (ACCX) and A,D-bridged isopropyldimethylsilylcalix[6]arene (ADCX) dissolved in OV-1701 were used as stationary phases in isothermal capillary gas chromatographic separation of some positional isomers. Retention factors and separation factors for the isomers were measured. The isomers investigated are well resolved on the two phases. Retention of all the solutes investigated is longer on ACCX than on ADCX. The longer retention on A,C-bridged calix[6]arene is probably due to extra inductive interactions of the solute molecule with the carbonyl moieties in the phase. Separation factors for closely eluting isomer pairs are similar on the two phases. This seems to indicate that the carbonyl moieties do not play an appreciable role in discriminating the isomer molecules on entering the cavity of the calixarene if the solute is retained by the inclusion process.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-05-27
    Description: Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC)) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse liver, increases bile acid levels, and lowers hepatic triglycerides and serum glucose. DLPC treatment also decreases hepatic steatosis and improves glucose homeostasis in two mouse models of insulin resistance. Both the antidiabetic and lipotropic effects are lost in liver-specific Lrh-1 knockouts. These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signalling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150801/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150801/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jae Man -- Lee, Yoon Kwang -- Mamrosh, Jennifer L -- Busby, Scott A -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Pathak, Manish C -- Ortlund, Eric A -- Moore, David D -- DK-079638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA134873/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK068804/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK083572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK083572-02/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 DK007696/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH084512/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 25;474(7352):506-10. doi: 10.1038/nature10111.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21614002" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bile Acids and Salts/biosynthesis/metabolism/pharmacology ; Blood Glucose/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Disease Models, Animal ; Fatty Liver/drug therapy/enzymology ; HeLa Cells ; Homeostasis/drug effects ; Humans ; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology ; Insulin Resistance/physiology ; Ligands ; Lipogenesis/drug effects ; Liver/drug effects/enzymology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Phosphatidylcholines/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/agonists/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Triglycerides/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-08-17
    Description: Inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes by homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighbouring genes. We propose that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities when the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes carrying out an essential function. The glycolytic gene enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by the expression of ENO2. Here we show that short-hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival and the tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells, and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger-deleted genes encoding functionally redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers containing such genomic events.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712624/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712624/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Muller, Florian L -- Colla, Simona -- Aquilanti, Elisa -- Manzo, Veronica E -- Genovese, Giannicola -- Lee, Jaclyn -- Eisenson, Daniel -- Narurkar, Rujuta -- Deng, Pingna -- Nezi, Luigi -- Lee, Michelle A -- Hu, Baoli -- Hu, Jian -- Sahin, Ergun -- Ong, Derrick -- Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot -- Ho, Dennis -- Kwong, Lawrence -- Brennan, Cameron -- Wang, Y Alan -- Chin, Lynda -- DePinho, Ronald A -- 3 P01 CA095616-08S1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 57006984/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- P01 CA095616/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA95616/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32-CA009361/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 16;488(7411):337-42. doi: 10.1038/nature11331.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genomic Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895339" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Biomarkers, Tumor/deficiency/genetics ; Brain Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genes, Essential/*genetics ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Glioblastoma/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy/*methods ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Phosphonoacetic Acid/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/deficiency/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105188/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105188/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miller, Jeremy A -- Ding, Song-Lin -- Sunkin, Susan M -- Smith, Kimberly A -- Ng, Lydia -- Szafer, Aaron -- Ebbert, Amanda -- Riley, Zackery L -- Royall, Joshua J -- Aiona, Kaylynn -- Arnold, James M -- Bennet, Crissa -- Bertagnolli, Darren -- Brouner, Krissy -- Butler, Stephanie -- Caldejon, Shiella -- Carey, Anita -- Cuhaciyan, Christine -- Dalley, Rachel A -- Dee, Nick -- Dolbeare, Tim A -- Facer, Benjamin A C -- Feng, David -- Fliss, Tim P -- Gee, Garrett -- Goldy, Jeff -- Gourley, Lindsey -- Gregor, Benjamin W -- Gu, Guangyu -- Howard, Robert E -- Jochim, Jayson M -- Kuan, Chihchau L -- Lau, Christopher -- Lee, Chang-Kyu -- Lee, Felix -- Lemon, Tracy A -- Lesnar, Phil -- McMurray, Bergen -- Mastan, Naveed -- Mosqueda, Nerick -- Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa -- Ngo, Nhan-Kiet -- Nyhus, Julie -- Oldre, Aaron -- Olson, Eric -- Parente, Jody -- Parker, Patrick D -- Parry, Sheana E -- Stevens, Allison -- Pletikos, Mihovil -- Reding, Melissa -- Roll, Kate -- Sandman, David -- Sarreal, Melaine -- Shapouri, Sheila -- Shapovalova, Nadiya V -- Shen, Elaine H -- Sjoquist, Nathan -- Slaughterbeck, Clifford R -- Smith, Michael -- Sodt, Andy J -- Williams, Derric -- Zollei, Lilla -- Fischl, Bruce -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Geschwind, Daniel H -- Glass, Ian A -- Hawrylycz, Michael J -- Hevner, Robert F -- Huang, Hao -- Jones, Allan R -- Knowles, James A -- Levitt, Pat -- Phillips, John W -- Sestan, Nenad -- Wohnoutka, Paul -- Dang, Chinh -- Bernard, Amy -- Hohmann, John G -- Lein, Ed S -- 5R24HD0008836/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R00 HD061485/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH092535/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R24 HD000836/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- RC2 MH089921/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2MH089921/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):199-206. doi: 10.1038/nature13185. Epub 2014 Apr 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA [2]. ; Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA. ; Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, 1959 North East Pacific Street, Box 356320, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA [2] Computer Science and AI Lab, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. ; 1] Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [2] Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Program in Neurogenetics, Department of Neurology and Semel Institute David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA [2] Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. ; Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA [2] Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695229" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anatomy, Artistic ; Animals ; Atlases as Topic ; Brain/embryology/*metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Fetus/cytology/embryology/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/*genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Neocortex/embryology/metabolism ; Species Specificity ; *Transcriptome
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-10-23
    Description: The holotype of Deinocheirus mirificus was collected by the 1965 Polish-Mongolian Palaeontological Expedition at Altan Uul III in the southern Gobi of Mongolia. Because the holotype consists mostly of giant forelimbs (2.4 m in length) with scapulocoracoids, for almost 50 years Deinocheirus has remained one of the most mysterious dinosaurs. The mosaic of ornithomimosaur and non-ornithomimosaur characters in the holotype has made it difficult to resolve the phylogenetic status of Deinocheirus. Here we describe two new specimens of Deinocheirus that were discovered in the Nemegt Formation of Altan Uul IV in 2006 and Bugiin Tsav in 2009. The Bugiin Tsav specimen (MPC-D 100/127) includes a left forelimb clearly identifiable as Deinocheirus and is 6% longer than the holotype. The Altan Uul IV specimen (MPC-D 100/128) is approximately 74% the size of MPC-D 100/127. Cladistic analysis indicates that Deinocheirus is the largest member of the Ornithomimosauria; however, it has many unique skeletal features unknown in other ornithomimosaurs, indicating that Deinocheirus was a heavily built, non-cursorial animal with an elongate snout, a deep jaw, tall neural spines, a pygostyle, a U-shaped furcula, an expanded pelvis for strong muscle attachments, a relatively short hind limb and broad-tipped pedal unguals. Ecomorphological features in the skull, more than a thousand gastroliths, and stomach contents (fish remains) suggest that Deinocheirus was a megaomnivore that lived in mesic environments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Yuong-Nam -- Barsbold, Rinchen -- Currie, Philip J -- Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu -- Lee, Hang-Jae -- Godefroit, Pascal -- Escuillie, Francois -- Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):257-60. doi: 10.1038/nature13874. Epub 2014 Oct 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geological Museum, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, South Korea. ; Paleontological Center, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 210-351, Mongolia. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada. ; Hokkaido University Museum, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. ; Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. ; Eldonia, 9 Avenue des Portes Occitanes, 3800 Gannat, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Size ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; *Fossils ; Mongolia ; Phylogeny ; Skeleton ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Spine/anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-10-21
    Description: In nature, helical macromolecules such as collagen, chitin and cellulose are critical to the morphogenesis and functionality of various hierarchically structured materials. During tissue formation, these chiral macromolecules are secreted and undergo self-templating assembly, a process whereby multiple kinetic factors influence the assembly of the incoming building blocks to produce non-equilibrium structures. A single macromolecule can form diverse functional structures when self-templated under different conditions. Collagen type I, for instance, forms transparent corneal tissues from orthogonally aligned nematic fibres, distinctively coloured skin tissues from cholesteric phase fibre bundles, and mineralized tissues from hierarchically organized fibres. Nature's self-templated materials surpass the functional and structural complexity achievable by current top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods. However, self-templating has not been thoroughly explored for engineering synthetic materials. Here we demonstrate the biomimetic, self-templating assembly of chiral colloidal particles (M13 phage) into functional materials. A single-step process produces long-range-ordered, supramolecular films showing multiple levels of hierarchical organization and helical twist. Three distinct supramolecular structures are created by this approach: nematic orthogonal twists, cholesteric helical ribbons and smectic helicolidal nanofilaments. Both chiral liquid crystalline phase transitions and competing interfacial forces at the interface are found to be critical factors in determining the morphology of the templated structures during assembly. The resulting materials show distinctive optical and photonic properties, functioning as chiral reflector/filters and structural colour matrices. In addition, M13 phages with genetically incorporated bioactive peptide ligands direct both soft and hard tissue growth in a hierarchically organized manner. Our assembly approach provides insight into the complexities of hierarchical assembly in nature and could be expanded to other chiral molecules to engineer sophisticated functional helical-twisted structures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Woo-Jae -- Oh, Jin-Woo -- Kwak, Kyungwon -- Lee, Byung Yang -- Meyer, Joel -- Wang, Eddie -- Hexemer, Alexander -- Lee, Seung-Wuk -- R21DE018360/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 19;478(7369):364-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10513.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteriophage M13/chemistry/*physiology ; Biomimetic Materials/chemical synthesis/*chemistry ; Cell Line ; Macromolecular Substances/chemistry ; Mice ; Optical Rotation ; Tissue Culture Techniques/instrumentation ; Virion/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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