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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-01-04
    Description: Protein kinase M-zeta (PKM-zeta) is a constitutively active form of atypical protein kinase C that is exclusively expressed in the brain and implicated in the maintenance of long-term memory. Most studies that support a role for PKM-zeta in memory maintenance have used pharmacological PKM-zeta inhibitors such as the myristoylated zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) or chelerythrine. Here we use a genetic approach and target exon 9 of the Prkcz gene to generate mice that lack both protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) and PKM-zeta (Prkcz(-/-) mice). Prkcz(-/-) mice showed normal behaviour in a cage environment and in baseline tests of motor function and sensory perception, but displayed reduced anxiety-like behaviour. Notably, Prkcz(-/-) mice did not show deficits in learning or memory in tests of cued fear conditioning, novel object recognition, object location recognition, conditioned place preference for cocaine, or motor learning, when compared with wild-type littermates. ZIP injection into the nucleus accumbens reduced expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference in Prkcz(-/-) mice. In vitro, ZIP and scrambled ZIP inhibited PKM-zeta, PKC-iota and PKC-zeta with similar inhibition constant (K(i)) values. Chelerythrine was a weak inhibitor of PKM-zeta (K(i) = 76 muM). Our findings show that absence of PKM-zeta does not impair learning and memory in mice, and that ZIP can erase reward memory even when PKM-zeta is not present.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548047/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548047/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Anna M -- Kanter, Benjamin R -- Wang, Dan -- Lim, Jana P -- Zou, Mimi E -- Qiu, Chichen -- McMahon, Thomas -- Dadgar, Jahan -- Fischbach-Weiss, Sarah C -- Messing, Robert O -- AA017072/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AA017072/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 17;493(7432):416-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11803. Epub 2013 Jan 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, California 94608, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23283171" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anxiety/genetics ; Behavior, Animal ; Benzophenanthridines/pharmacology ; Cocaine ; Conditioning, Classical ; Cues ; Exons/genetics ; Fear ; Female ; *Gene Deletion ; Male ; Memory/*physiology ; Mice ; Protein Kinase C/analysis/*deficiency/*genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-01-11
    Description: Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, with 〉/=50% of tumours expressing the BRAF(V600E) oncoprotein. Moreover, the marked tumour regression and improved survival of late-stage BRAF-mutated melanoma patients in response to treatment with vemurafenib demonstrates the essential role of oncogenic BRAF in melanoma maintenance. However, as most patients relapse with lethal drug-resistant disease, understanding and preventing mechanism(s) of resistance is critical to providing improved therapy. Here we investigate the cause and consequences of vemurafenib resistance using two independently derived primary human melanoma xenograft models in which drug resistance is selected by continuous vemurafenib administration. In one of these models, resistant tumours show continued dependency on BRAF(V600E)--〉MEK--〉ERK signalling owing to elevated BRAF(V600E) expression. Most importantly, we demonstrate that vemurafenib-resistant melanomas become drug dependent for their continued proliferation, such that cessation of drug administration leads to regression of established drug-resistant tumours. We further demonstrate that a discontinuous dosing strategy, which exploits the fitness disadvantage displayed by drug-resistant cells in the absence of the drug, forestalls the onset of lethal drug-resistant disease. These data highlight the concept that drug-resistant cells may also display drug dependency, such that altered dosing may prevent the emergence of lethal drug resistance. Such observations may contribute to sustaining the durability of the vemurafenib response with the ultimate goal of curative therapy for the subset of melanoma patients with BRAF mutations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3930354/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3930354/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Das Thakur, Meghna -- Salangsang, Fernando -- Landman, Allison S -- Sellers, William R -- Pryer, Nancy K -- Levesque, Mitchell P -- Dummer, Reinhard -- McMahon, Martin -- Stuart, Darrin D -- R01 CA176839/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA176839/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007185/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 14;494(7436):251-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11814. Epub 2013 Jan 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Emeryville, California 94608, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23302800" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Administration Schedule ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*drug effects ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism ; Humans ; Indoles/*administration & dosage/*adverse effects/pharmacology ; MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects ; Melanoma/*drug therapy/genetics/*pathology ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/metabolism ; Mutation ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Subcutaneous Tissue ; Sulfonamides/*administration & dosage/*adverse effects/pharmacology ; Time Factors ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: The large spectrum of limb morphologies reflects the wide evolutionary diversification of the basic pentadactyl pattern in tetrapods. In even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls, including cattle), limbs are adapted for running as a consequence of progressive reduction of their distal skeleton to symmetrical and elongated middle digits with hoofed phalanges. Here we analyse bovine embryos to establish that polarized gene expression is progressively lost during limb development in comparison to the mouse. Notably, the transcriptional upregulation of the Ptch1 gene, which encodes a Sonic hedgehog (SHH) receptor, is disrupted specifically in the bovine limb bud mesenchyme. This is due to evolutionary alteration of a Ptch1 cis-regulatory module, which no longer responds to graded SHH signalling during bovine handplate development. Our study provides a molecular explanation for the loss of digit asymmetry in bovine limb buds and suggests that modifications affecting the Ptch1 cis-regulatory landscape have contributed to evolutionary diversification of artiodactyl limbs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lopez-Rios, Javier -- Duchesne, Amandine -- Speziale, Dario -- Andrey, Guillaume -- Peterson, Kevin A -- Germann, Philipp -- Unal, Erkan -- Liu, Jing -- Floriot, Sandrine -- Barbey, Sarah -- Gallard, Yves -- Muller-Gerbl, Magdalena -- Courtney, Andrew D -- Klopp, Christophe -- Rodriguez, Sabrina -- Ivanek, Robert -- Beisel, Christian -- Wicking, Carol -- Iber, Dagmar -- Robert, Benoit -- McMahon, Andrew P -- Duboule, Denis -- Zeller, Rolf -- NS 033642/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):46-51. doi: 10.1038/nature13289. Epub 2014 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Developmental Genetics, Department Biomedicine, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2]. ; 1] Developmental Genetics, Department Biomedicine, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Genetique Animale et Biologie Integrative, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France [3]. ; Developmental Genetics, Department Biomedicine, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; School of Life Sciences, Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Department for Biosystems Science and Engineering, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Developmental Genetics, Department Biomedicine, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] Department for Biosystems Science and Engineering, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Genetique Animale et Biologie Integrative, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Domaine Experimental du Pin au Haras, F-61310 Exmes, France. ; Institute of Anatomy, Department Biomedicine, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. ; Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Biometrie et Intelligence Artificielle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France. ; 1] Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Genetique Animale et Biologie Integrative, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France [2] Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire d'Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31077 Toulouse, France. ; 1] Developmental Genetics, Department Biomedicine, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Institut Pasteur, Genetique Moleculaire de la Morphogenese and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique URA-2578, F-75015 Paris, France. ; 1] School of Life Sciences, Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990743" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Body Patterning ; Cattle ; Extremities/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics ; Hedgehog Proteins/*metabolism ; Limb Buds/anatomy & histology/embryology ; Male ; Mesoderm/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics/*metabolism ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-07-19
    Description: During early lung development, airway tubes change shape. Tube length increases more than circumference as a large proportion of lung epithelial cells divide parallel to the airway longitudinal axis. We show that this bias is lost in mutants with increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 activity, revealing a link between the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and the control of mitotic spindle orientation. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate that change in airway shape can occur as a function of spindle angle distribution determined by ERK1/2 signaling, independent of effects on cell proliferation or cell size and shape. We identify sprouty genes, which encode negative regulators of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10)-mediated RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling, as essential for controlling airway shape change during development through an effect on mitotic spindle orientation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260627/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260627/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tang, Nan -- Marshall, Wallace F -- McMahon, Martin -- Metzger, Ross J -- Martin, Gail R -- 5T32HL007185/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA131201/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA131261/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA78711/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE17744/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM077004/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jul 15;333(6040):342-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1204831.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764747" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing ; Animals ; Cell Polarity ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Shape ; Cell Size ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 10/genetics/metabolism ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ; Lung/cytology/*embryology/metabolism ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/*metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/*metabolism ; Mitosis ; Models, Biological ; *Morphogenesis ; Mutation ; Organogenesis ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics/*metabolism ; Respiratory Mucosa/cytology/*embryology ; Spindle Apparatus/*physiology/ultrastructure
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-11-06
    Description: People with pale skin, red hair, freckles and an inability to tan--the 'red hair/fair skin' phenotype--are at highest risk of developing melanoma, compared to all other pigmentation types. Genetically, this phenotype is frequently the product of inactivating polymorphisms in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene. MC1R encodes a cyclic AMP-stimulating G-protein-coupled receptor that controls pigment production. Minimal receptor activity, as in red hair/fair skin polymorphisms, produces the red/yellow pheomelanin pigment, whereas increasing MC1R activity stimulates the production of black/brown eumelanin. Pheomelanin has weak shielding capacity against ultraviolet radiation relative to eumelanin, and has been shown to amplify ultraviolet-A-induced reactive oxygen species. Several observations, however, complicate the assumption that melanoma risk is completely ultraviolet-radiation-dependent. For example, unlike non-melanoma skin cancers, melanoma is not restricted to sun-exposed skin and ultraviolet radiation signature mutations are infrequently oncogenic drivers. Although linkage of melanoma risk to ultraviolet radiation exposure is beyond doubt, ultraviolet-radiation-independent events are likely to have a significant role. Here we introduce a conditional, melanocyte-targeted allele of the most common melanoma oncoprotein, BRAF(V600E), into mice carrying an inactivating mutation in the Mc1r gene (these mice have a phenotype analogous to red hair/fair skin humans). We observed a high incidence of invasive melanomas without providing additional gene aberrations or ultraviolet radiation exposure. To investigate the mechanism of ultraviolet-radiation-independent carcinogenesis, we introduced an albino allele, which ablates all pigment production on the Mc1r(e/e) background. Selective absence of pheomelanin synthesis was protective against melanoma development. In addition, normal Mc1r(e/e) mouse skin was found to have significantly greater oxidative DNA and lipid damage than albino-Mc1r(e/e) mouse skin. These data suggest that the pheomelanin pigment pathway produces ultraviolet-radiation-independent carcinogenic contributions to melanomagenesis by a mechanism of oxidative damage. Although protection from ultraviolet radiation remains important, additional strategies may be required for optimal melanoma prevention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521494/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521494/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mitra, Devarati -- Luo, Xi -- Morgan, Ann -- Wang, Jin -- Hoang, Mai P -- Lo, Jennifer -- Guerrero, Candace R -- Lennerz, Jochen K -- Mihm, Martin C -- Wargo, Jennifer A -- Robinson, Kathleen C -- Devi, Suprabha P -- Vanover, Jillian C -- D'Orazio, John A -- McMahon, Martin -- Bosenberg, Marcus W -- Haigis, Kevin M -- Haber, Daniel A -- Wang, Yinsheng -- Fisher, David E -- 5R01 AR043369-16/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- F30 ES020663-01/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR043369/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA101864/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129933/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA131075/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA176839/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA101864/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 15;491(7424):449-53. doi: 10.1038/nature11624. Epub 2012 Oct 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23123854" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Hair Color/*genetics ; Indoles/pharmacology ; Melanins/metabolism ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Monophenol Monooxygenase/genetics ; Peroxidases/metabolism ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics ; Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1/genetics ; Skin Pigmentation/*genetics ; Sulfonamides/pharmacology ; Survival Analysis ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; *Ultraviolet Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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