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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: Mitochondria ; hexokinase ; normal and tumor cells ; enzyme localization ; subcellular fractionation ; receptor for binding ; monoamine oxidase ; NADPH-cytochromec reductase ; transformation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Hexokinase plays an important role in normal glucose-utilizing tissues like brain and kidney, and an even more important role in highly malignant cancer cells where it is markedly overexpressed. In both cell types, normal and transformed, a significant portion of the total hexokinase activity is bound to particulate material that sediments upon differential centrifugation with the crude “mitochondrial” fraction. In the case of brain, particulate binding may constitute most of the total hexokinase activity of the cell, and in highly malignant tumor cells as much as 80 percent of the total. When a variety of techniques are rigorously applied to better define the particulate location of hexokinase within the crude “mitochondrial fraction,” a striking difference is observed between the distribution of hexokinase in normal and transformed cells. Significantly, particulate hexokinase found in rat brain, kidney, or liver consistently distributes with nonmitochondrial membrane markers whereas the particulate hexokinase of highly glycolytic hepatoma cells distributes with outer mitochondrial membrane markers. These studies indicate that within normal tissues hexokinase binds preferentially to non-mitochondrial receptor sites but upon transformation of such cells to yield poorly differentiated, highly malignant tumors, the overexpressed enzyme binds preferentially to outer mitochondrial membrane receptors. These studies, taken together with the well-known observation that, once solubilized, the particulate hexokinase from a normal tissue can bind to isolated mitochondria, are consistent with the presence in normal tissues of at least two different types of particulate receptors for hexokinase with different subcellular locations. A model which explains this unique transformation-dependent shift in the intracellular location of hexokinase is proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio calculations employing a standard double-zeta basis set augmented with various polarization functions have been used to investigate the lowest energy region of the ground-state potential energy surface of the formamide molecule. Hartree-Fock calculations with only d polarization functions on the nonhydrogen atoms located two stable minima, that with geometry distorted from planarity having slightly lower energy; only one stable minimum with planar structure is found when p polarization functions on the hydrogens are included. In contrast optimizations, which account approximately for the correlation energy using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory consistently favor a single slightly nonplanar minimum energy geometry.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Hypertrophy ; Irradiation ; Myosin heavy chain ; Satellite cells ; Skeletal muscle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The right extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of growing male rats was overloaded by ablation of its synergist tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Four weeks later, the overloaded muscle was heavier and contained larger type IIA, IIX and IIB fibres than either untreated contralateral muscle or control muscle from an untreated animal. The myonuclear-to-myoplasmic volume ratio was maintained in the overloaded muscle. Overloaded EDL muscle, previously subjected to a dose of irradiation sufficient to sterilise satellite cells, and EDL muscle which had been only irradiated, were significantly lighter and contained significantly smaller fibres than controls, though a significant amount of normal EDL muscle growth did occur following either treatment. The myonuclear-to-myoplasmic volume ratio of the irradiated muscles was smaller than in controls. Overloaded muscle, with or without prior irradiation, possessed a smaller proportion of fibres containing IIB myosin heavy chain (MHC) and a larger proportion of fibres containing IIA and IIX MHC; a significant percentage of these fibres coexpressed either type IIA and IIX MHC or type IIX and IIB MHC. Thus in the absence of satellite cell mitosis, muscles of young rats possess a limited capacity for normal growth but not for compensatory hypertrophy. Adaptations in MHC gene expression to chronic overload are completely independent of satellite cell activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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