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  • Bemisia argentifolii  (3)
  • Molecular-markers  (2)
  • Nematodes  (2)
  • susceptibility loci
  • CANCER-RISK
  • 1995-1999  (7)
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Keywords
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  • 1995-1999  (7)
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; Endosymbionts ; Microorganism ; Symbiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the endosymbionts of several populations of whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Consistent differences in morphology and relative number of endosymbionts were observed between species and biotypes of whitefly within the Bemisia taxon.Bemisia argentifolii (=B. tabaci B biotype) individuals from Hawaii, Florida, and Arizona contained two morphological types of microorganisms housed within the mycetocyte cells of immature whiteflies. In contrast, individuals from populations ofB. tabaci A biotype from Arizona and Mexico, andB. tabaci Jatropha biotype from Puerto Rico, consistently contained three distinct morphological types of microorganisms within their mycetocytes. Organisms fromB. tabaci A and Jatropha biotypes differed from each other in the relative frequency of each type of microorganism. These observations suggest that different whitefly biotypes may have variable combinations of micro-fauna, with some possibly unique to each group, and furthers the hypothesis that variation in whitefly endosymbionts may be associated with the development of biotypes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; cotton whitefly ; squash silverleaf disorder ; sweetpotato whitefly ; tobacco whitefly ; virus vector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Esterase profiles were examined for over 40 populations of the whitefly,Bemisia tabaci, obtained from native and cultivated plant hosts worldwide. Twelve unique electromorphs were identified from distinct populations concentrated largely in Central America, Africa, and India. One electromorph, type B, has recently been proposed as a separate species,Bemisia argentifolii, and has recently spread throughout much of the world. When considered with evidence from mating studies and the ability to induce phytotoxic disorders (squash silverleaf disorder), our data suggest that the single taxonBemisia tabaci may actually represent a species complex.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; cotton whitefly ; squash silverleaf disorder ; sweetpotato whitefly ; tobacco whitefly ; virus vector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Esterase profiles were examined for over 40 populations of the whitefly,Bemisia tabaci, obtained from native and cultivated plant hosts worldwide. Twelve unique electromorphs were identified from distinct populations concentrated largely in Central America, Africa, and India. One electromorph, type B, has recently been proposed as a separate species,Bemisia argentifolii, and has recently spread throughout much of the world. When considered with evidence from mating studies and the ability to induce phytotoxic disorders (squash silverleaf disorder), our data suggest that the single taxonBemisia tabaci may actually represent a species complex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Diversity ; Molecular-markers ; Pea (Pisum) ; Relatedness-trees ; Mantel's test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract DNA-based molecular-marker techniques have been proven powerful in genetic diversity estimations. Among them, RFLP was the first and is still the most commonly used in the estimation of genetic diversity of eukaryotic species. The recently developed PCR-based multiple-loci marker techniques, which include RAPD, AFLP, Microsatellite-AFLP and inter-SSR PCR, are playing increasingly important roles in this type of research. Despite the wide application of these techniques, no direct comparison of these methods in the estimation of genetic diversity has been carried out. Here we report a direct comparison of DNA-based RFLP with various PCR-based techniques regarding their informativeness and applicability for genetic diversity analysis. Among ten pea genotypes studied, all the PCR-based methods were much more informative than cDNA-RFLP. Genetic diversity trees were derived from each marker technique, and compared using Mantel's test. By this criterion, all trees derived from the various molecular marker techniques, except for the tree derived from inter-SSR PCR, were significantly correlated, suggesting that these PCR-based techniques could replace RFLP in the estimation of genetic diversity. On the basis of this result, AFLP analysis was applied to assess the genetic diversity of a sample of accessions representing the various species and subspecies within the genus Pisum.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Diversity ; Molecular-markers ; Pea (Pisum) ; Relatedness-trees ; Mantel's test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract DNA-based molecular-marker techniques have been proven powerful in genetic diversity estimations. Among them, RFLP was the first and is still the most commonly used in the estimation of genetic diversity of eukaryotic species. The recently developed PCR-based multiple-loci marker techniques, which include RAPD, AFLP, Microsatellite-AFLP and inter-SSR PCR, are playing increasingly important roles in this type of research. Despite the wide application of these techniques, no direct comparison of these methods in the estimation of genetic diversity has been carried out. Here we report a direct comparison of DNA-based RFLP with various PCR-based techniques regarding their informativeness and applicability for genetic diversity analysis. Among ten pea genotypes studied, all the PCR-based methods were much more informative than cDNA-RFLP. Genetic diversity trees were derived from each marker technique, and compared using Mantel's test. By this criterion, all trees derived from the various molecular marker techniques, except for the tree derived from inter-SSR PCR, were significantly correlated, suggesting that these PCR-based techniques could replace RFLP in the estimation of genetic diversity. On the basis of this result, AFLP analysis was applied to assess the genetic diversity of a sample of accessions representing the various species and subspecies within the genus Pisum.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Chitin ; Heterodera trifolii ; Meloidogyne spp. ; Nematodes ; Nodulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Effects of soil amendment with crabshell chitin on the growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and on populations of soil bacteria, fungi, and plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes were investigated in a pot trial. Five soil samples were collected from Te Puke (Paengaroa Shallow Sand, a Typic Hapludand) and five from Hamilton (Bruntwood silt loam, an Aquic Hapludand), New Zealand. Subsamples of each soil were either amended with chitin or unamended and planted with white clover and ryegrass. The ryegrass shoot weight in amended soil was greater (P〈0.01), most probably due to N mineralised from chitin. A significantly lower (P〈0.01) root: shoot ratio of ryegrass in the amended soil also suggested improved N availability, and therefore less root mass was needed to support a given shoot mass. A reduction in nodulation was observed in 12-day-old white clover seedlings (P〈0.05) and also in 6-week-old seedlings (P〈0.01). The shoot weight of white clover was significantly lower (P〈0.05) in amended soil, possibly due to phytotoxic effects of chitin. Chitin increased (P〈0.01) the populations of bacteria and fungi by 13-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. The cyst nematode of white clover, Heterodera trifolii, was significantly reduced in chitin-amended soil, possibly due to increased levels of chitinase produced by rhizosphere microorganisms. Two other plant-parasitic nematodes, Pratylenchus spp. and Tylenchus spp., were also reduced in ryegrass roots and in soil as a result of the chitin amendment. However, the total number of free-living nematodes increased 5.4-fold in amended soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Chitin ; Heterodera trifolii ; Meloidogyne spp. ; Nematodes ; Nodulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Effects of soil amendment with crabshell chitin on the growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and on populations of soil bacteria, fungi, and plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes were investigated in a pot trial. Five soil samples were collected from Te Puke (Paengaroa Shallow Sand, a Typic Hapludand) and five from Hamilton (Bruntwood silt loam, an Aquic Hapludand), New Zealand. Subsamples of each soil were either amended with chitin or unamended and planted with white clover and ryegrass. The ryegrass shoot weight in amended soil was greater (P〈0.01), most probably due to N mineralised from chitin. A significantly lower (P〈0.01) root: shoot ratio of ryegrass in the amended soil also suggested improved N availability, and therefore less root mass was needed to support a given shoot mass. A reduction in nodulation was observed in 12-day-old white clover seedlings (P〈0.05) and also in 6-week-old seedlings (P〈0.01). The shoot weight of white clover was significantly lower (P〈0.05) in amended soil, possibly due to phytotoxic effects of chitin. Chitin increased (P〈0.01) the populations of bacteria and fungi by 13-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. The cyst nematode of white clover, Heterodera trifolii, was significantly reduced in chitin-amended soil, possibly due to increased levels of chitinase produced by rhizosphere microorganisms. Two other plant-parasitic nematodes, Pratylenchus spp. and Tylenchus spp., were also reduced in ryegrass roots and in soil as a result of the chitin amendment. However, the total number of free-living nematodes increased 5.4-fold in amended soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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