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  • diabetes  (6)
  • Geometridae  (5)
  • Monkey  (5)
  • Springer  (16)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
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  • Springer  (16)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) ; Bruce spanworm ; Operophetra brumata L. ; winter moth ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene ; inhibitor ; (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A single sex pherormone component was isolated from abdominal tip extracts of female Bruce spanworm.Operophtera bruceata (Hulst). This was identified as (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene by capillary gas chromatography (GC), electroantennography, and mass spectrometry. In addition, hexane extracts of female abdominal tips from Bruce spanworm and the winter moth.O. brumata L., were analyzed by GC coupled to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). The extracts ofO. bruceata andO. brumata females elicited only a single response, at the same retention time, from antennae of their conspecific and reciprocal males. In field tests conducted in Saskatchewan, traps baited with the synthetic tetraene captured Bruce spanworm males. In tests carried out on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, where the two species coexist, both Bruce spanworm and winter moth males were captured. The attractancy of lures containing the synthetic pheromone alone and in combination with several structurally related analogs was field tested at both locations. One of these, an isomer of the natural pheromone, (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene, inhibited the capture of Bruce spanworm males but had no effect upon the number of winter moth males which were taken. Thus, populations of these two very similar species can be distinguished by employing traps baited with pheromone ± the inhibitor. Coneorifice Hara traps were found useful for field trapping males of both species.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Pheromone ; sex attractant ; Noctuidae ; Geometridae ; epoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Pheromone components and sex attractant blends consisting of 3Z,6Z,9Z-triene hydrocarbons and racemic and chiral forms of3Z,6Z-cis-9, 10-epoxydienes have been elucidated for two noctuid and one geometrid moth species. MaleEuclidea cuspidea moths were attracted to blends of 3Z,6Z,9Z-heneicosatriene (3Z,6Z,9Z-21∶H) with 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxyheneicosadiene (3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H). In addition to these compounds, 3Z,6Z,9Z-20∶H, and two regioisomeric C21 epoxides were tentatively identified in pheromone gland extracts.Caenurgina distincta moths were attracted by an 8∶∶1 blend of 3Z,6Z,9Z-20∶H with3Z,6Z-cis- 9,10-epoxy-20∶H.Eupithecia annulata moths were attracted by either 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-20∶H or 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H, and by the 95,10R enantiomer of each epoxide. 3Z,6Z,9Z-21∶H and 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H were tentatively identified from pheromone glands. Pheromone components were identified by a combination of coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and field bioassays.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Alsophila pometaria(Harris) ; fall cankerworm ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene ; synthesis ; hydrocarbons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene, sex pheromone components ofAlsophila pometaria, were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reactions and found to be spectroscopically and chromatographically identical to isolated natural material. Flight-tunnel bioassays and field-trapping experiments confirmed that the two tetraenes together with (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene are sex pheromone components. While traps baited with either tetraene individually captured conspecific males in field-trapping experiments, addition of the triene, which captured no males by itself, to either tetraene resulted in synergistic responses.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Alsophila pometaria (Harris) ; fall cankerworm ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene ; (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A sex pheromone extract from fall cankerworm moths,Alsophila pometaria, attracted conspecific males in field tests. Four EAG-active components were isolated from the extract and identified by GC-MS, highfield PMR spectroscopy, and microchemical techniques asn-nonadecane (I), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (II), (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetrane (IV). Studies of the behavioral responses of male moths in a flight tunnel to the isolated components showed II, III, and IV were the major components of the sex pheromone. No sex pheromone behavioral responses were observed for I.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Sex attractants ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; Noctuidae ; stereospecific synthesis ; (3Z,6Z,9Z)-triene hydrocarbons ; (3Z,6Z,9S,10R)-9,10-epoxydienes ; (3Z,6Z,9R, 10S)-9,10-epoxydienes ; electroantennogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Male moths belonging to 17 species of Geometridae and nine species of Noctuidae were captured in traps baited with synthetic chemicals as part of a field screening program. The compounds tested were the C18-C22 homologs of: (1) (3Z,6Z,9Z)-triene hydrocarbons; (2) mixtures containing equal quantities of (3Z,6Z)-cis-9,10-expoxydienes, (3Z,92Z)-cis-6,7-epoxydienes, and (6Z,9Z)-cis-3,4-epoxydienes; (3) (3Z,6Z)-9S,10R-epoxydienes; (4) (3Z,6Z)-9R,10S-epoxydienes; and (5) (3Z,6Z,9Z,11E)-nonadecatetraene. Field captures and electroantennographic assays revealed a high degree of specificity in the responses of many species to the synthetic chemicals. In several species the ability of males to discriminate between the 9S,10R and 9R,10S enantiomers of the monoepoxydiene isomers was clearly shown. Synergists and inhibitors were discovered for several of the reported attractants, some of which were not previously known to have semiochemical activity. The geometrid moths captured includedEpirrhoe sperryi (Herbulot),Mesoleuca ruficillata (Guenée),Triphosa haesitata (Guenée),Metanema inatomaria (Guenée),Prochoerodes transversata (Drury),Cabera erythemaria (Guenée),Synaxis jubararia (Hulst),Dysstroma brunneata ethela (Hulst),Eulithes testata (Linnaeus),Sicya macularia (Harris),Xanthorhoe iduata (Guenée),X. abrasaria aquilonaria (Herrich-Schäffer),X. munitata (Hübner),Itame loricaria (Eversmann),Eupithecia annulata (Hulst),E. rovocastaliata (Packard) andE. satyrata dodata (Taylor). The noctuid moths captured includedBleptina caradrinalis (Guenée),Idia américalis (Guenée),I. aemula (Hübner),Rivula propinqualis (Guenée),Lomanaltes eductalis (Walker),Spargaloma sexpunctata (Grote),Caenurgina distincta (Neumuller),Euclidia cuspidea (Hübner), andZale duplicata (Bethune). Six of the nine noctuid species captured belong to three subfamilies for which sex attractants had not been reported previously. Details for the stereospecific synthesis of (3Z,6Z)-cis-9,10-epoxydienes are also reported.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Learning and memory ; Serotonin ; Cholinergic ; Monkey ; Pharmacokinetics ; Receptor binding ; Alzheimer’s disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recent evidence indicates that the 5-HT4 subtype of serotonin receptor may modulate central cholinergic activity in regions of the mammalian CNS important to memory such as the frontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. These receptors could represent targets for drugs designed for the symptomatic therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders of memory. In the present study, the binding activity of RS 17017 (previously described as a selective 5-HT4 agonist) was assessed across a number of neurotransmitter receptors and binding sites, pharmacokinetic data were obtained, and the compound was evaluated in macaques for mnemonic effects via a computer-assisted delayed matching-to-sample task (DMTS). Binding data confirmed the 5-HT4 selectivity of the compound, while pharmacokinetic results revealed low oral bioavailability, but a large volume of distribution of the compound. Significant and reproducible improvements in DMTS accuracy were observed after oral administration of the compound across a dose-effect series in both younger and older monkeys. The results suggest that RS 17017 offers a potential for memory enhancement in disorders involving cognitive decline, and are consistent with a role for central 5-HT4 receptors in memory. Improvements in DMTS performance in aged monkeys may have particular implications for neurodegenerative conditions such as AD, whereas positive results in the younger monkeys indicate that RS 17017 (or similar compounds) may have additional potential in the therapeutics of memory disorders not necessarily associated with advanced age.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Monkey ; Bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy ; Axon terminals ; Pinealocytes ; Synapses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of axon terminals in the pineal gland of monkeys was studied by electron microscopy. Numerous terminals bearing small pleomorphic agranular and dense-cored vesicles were localized in the perivascular space and among the pinealocytes in the parenchyma in normal monkeys. Following bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy, they underwent degenerative changes, including the accumulation of glycogen masses, appearance of dense residual bodies and the displacement of synaptic vesicles. Some of these degenerating terminals showed synaptic contacts with the cell bodies of pinealocytes. At the synaptic junction the postsynaptic membrane was thickened asymmetrically. Examples of synaptic contacts were most frequently observed in 5 and 7 days postoperative animals. In the longer surviving (30 days) monkey, most of the axon terminals showed round agranular vesicles, and they were mainly presynaptic to the intrapineal ganglion cells with some of the pinealocytes. They remained structurally unchanged following the resection of both the superior cervical ganglia. A few axon terminals containing small dense-cored vesicles appeared to have survived the initial insult, but some of their vesicles appeared swollen 30 days after the operation. It is concluded from this study that some of the pinealocytes are under the influence by the postganglionic neurons in the superior cervical ganglia through direct synaptic contacts. The intrapineal ganglion cells are postsynaptic to fibres originating exclusively from the central nervous system. Some of these fibres, however, may be presynaptic directly to pinealocytes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Monkey ; Ultrastructure ; Pinealocytes ; Axon terminals ; Synapses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The present study described the normal ultrastructure of the monkey pineal gland. The gland was composed of the principal pinealocytes, intramural neurons and glial cells. The nucleus of the pinealocytes was deeply infolded with evenly distributed chromatin materials. The abundant cytoplasm was rich in organelles including the well-developed Golgi apparatuses, multivesicular bodies, dense-cored vesicles and widely scattered free and polyribosomes. A variety of axon terminals was observed and the majority of them contained pleomorphic agranular vesicles with a few large dense-cored vesicles. A few terminals showed flattened vesicles or small dense cored vesicles. Some of the axon terminals formed synaptic contacts with the cell bodies of pinealocytes. These synapses were mainly concentrated in the posterior third of the gland. The occasional intramural neurons observed were postsynaptic to axon terminals containing round agranular vesicles. The sources of the nerve fibres and terminals forming synaptic junctions with pinealocytes and intramural neurons were discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycaemic index ; leguminous seeds ; low blood glucose rise ; diabetes ; diabetic diet ; fat ; sugars ; protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recently diabetic patients have been encouraged to increase their carbohydrate intake, but exact details of which foods to use are lacking. To determine whether sufficiently large differences existed to justify more specific dietary advice, we compared the glycaemic responses to 50 g carbohydrate portions of different foods, taken as breakfast test meals by groups of five to seven diabetic patients. Two-to threefold differences were seen amongst the 15 foods tested. The glycaemic responses for spaghetti, ‘All-bran’, rice and beans were significantly below those for bread, while ‘Cornflakes’ were above. Factors predicted to influence this were without effect, including: substituting wholemeal for white bread, increasing substantially the simple sugars (using ‘All-bran’ or bananas instead of wholemeal bread) and doubling meal protein by adding cottage cheese to bread. Paired comparisons of the glycaemic response to the five legumes with those of the seven other starchy foods (breads, spaghetti, rice, Cornflakes, oatmeal porridge and potatoes) showed that the mean peak rise in blood glucose concentration and mean area under the glucose curve after beans were 23 and 28% lower, respectively, than the mean for the other foods (p 〈 0.001). Such results suggest a potentially valuable role for dried leguminous seeds in carbohydrate exchanges for individuals with impaired carbohydrate tolerance. These large differences in the blood glucose response to different food cannot at present be predicted directly from tables of chemical composition. Nevertheless, physiological testing may both aid in understanding the factors responsible and help selection of the appropriate carbohydrate foods for the diabetic diet.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Artificial endocrine pancreas ; capillaryunit ; xenogeneic ; pancreatic islets ; transplantation ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An implantable artificial endocrine pancreas consisting of a coiled single acrylic copolymer capillary surrounded by rat islets (1000/kg body weight) was implanted in 10 streptozotocin-alloxan diabetic dogs. About 5 h following implantation plasma glucose decreased from an initial mean value of 350 mg/dl to 150 mg/dl, and then to 100 mg/dl at 12 h. Plasma insulin increased to a mean of 39 mU/l (range 23–83 mU/l) at 5 h in the recipient animals. In addition a much improved plasma glucose disappearance rate (K = 1.9 ±0.3) with slightly delayed insulin responses was seen after intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed in 4 dogs at 7, 8, 10 and 18 h following implantation. These findings suggest that xenogeneic rat islets implanted as an artificial endocrine pancreas can improve glucose metabolism in the diabetic dog.
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