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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Fentanyl ; Opiates ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Psychomotor performance ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fentanyl is a mu opiate agonist which is occasionally abused by medical personnel who have ready access to the drug. We examined in healthy volunteers (N=13) the subjective and psychomotor-impairing effects of intravenous fentanyl (0–100 µg/70 kg). A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used in which subjects were injected with 0, 25 (N=6), 50 and 100 µg/70 kg fentanyl in a double-blind fashion. Subjects completed several questionnaires commonly used in abuse liability testing studies before drug injection and at periodic intervals for up to 3 h after drug injection. Subjects also completed several psychomotor tests at these times. Some aspects of psychomotor functioning (e.g., eye-hand coordination) were impaired by fentanyl. Fentanyl produced dose-related increases in ratings of “high” and “sedated,” but also tended to produce dysphoria and somatic symptomatology. Most subjects reported liking the effects of the two higher doses of fentanyl for at least a brief time after injection, but they varied widely in their liking ratings across the 3-h post-drug injection period. Despite the transient increases in liking ratings, fentanyl did not increase scores on a widely-used measure of drug-induced euphoria (morphine-benzedrine group scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory). The present results suggest that some medical personnel who experiment with fentanyl may like it, and thus be at increased risk for abusing the drug in the future.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Meperidine ; Opiates ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Psychomotor performance ; Miosis ; Humans ; Healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Meperidine is a mu opiate agonist that is frequently used to treat pain. We examined in healthy volunteers (N=10) the effects of intravenous meperidine (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) on mood and psychomotor performance. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used in which subjects were injected with meperidine or saline in a double-blind fashion. Subjects completed several subjective effects questionnaires commonly used in abuse liability testing studies before drug injection and at periodic intervals for up to 5 h after drug injection. Subjects also completed several psychomotor tests. Meperidine produced a constellation of subjective effects in a dose-related fashion, including increases in ratings of “sedated,” “coasting or spaced out” and “feel drug effect” ratings. Many of the drug's subjective effects persisted up to 4 or 5 h after administration of the 1.0 mg/kg dose. Drug liking ratings assessed on a visual analog scale were increased after meperidine injection in about half of the subjects (P=0.09). Eye-hand coordination was affected slightly by meperidine but other indices of psychomotor functioning were unaffected. Miosis increased in a dose-related fashion. Other physiological parameters, such as vital signs, were not affected by meperidine. We conclude that meperidine in healthy volunteers has robust and long-lasting effects on mood, but may have weaker effects on psychomotor performance.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Isoflurane ; Nitrous oxide ; General anesthetic ; Subanesthetic ; Mood ; Subjective effects ; Memory ; Psychomotor performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A prospective, crossover, double-blind trial was conducted in nine healthy volunteers in which the subjective, psychomotor and memory effects of isoflurane (0.0, 0.3 and 0.6%) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (0, 20 and 40%) were examined. Dependent measures included visual analog scales and a standardized drug effects inventory (subjective effects), reaction time and eye-hand coordination (e.g., psychomotor performance), and immediate and delayed free recall (memory). There were some similarities in subjective effects between the two inhaled drugs (e.g., increased ratings of “drunk” and “spaced out”), but isoflurane had effects which N2O did not have. Isoflurane but not N2O increased visual analog scale ratings of “confused,” “sedated,” and “carefree,” and decreased ratings of “in control of thoughts” and “in control of body.” An odor was detected with isoflurane and it was disliked. Psychomotor performance was more grossly impaired during isoflurane inhalation than during N2O inhalation. Psychomotor recovery from both agents was rapid and complete so that 5 min after the inhalation period had ceased, performance had returned to baseline levels. Both isoflurane and nitrous oxide impaired immediate and delayed free recall. The feasibility of using isoflurane in conscious sedation procedures is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Codeine ; Morphine ; Analgesia ; Oral ; Opiate ; Opioid ; Subjective ; Mood ; Psychomotor ; Pain ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of analgesic doses of oral codeine and morphine were examined in 12 healthy volunteers. Subjects ingested placebo, morphine 20 or 40 mg, or codeine 60 or 120 mg in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The smaller and larger doses of each drug were putatively equianalgesic, and the cold-pressor test was included to test this assumption. Codeine and morphine increased ratings of “feel drug effect” but had little effect on other subjective measures, including the Addiction Research Center Inventory, visual analog scales, and adjective checklists. The few subjective effects that were observed were modest and were dose-related for morphine but not for codeine. The drugs did not affect performance on Maddox-Wing, digit-symbol substitution, coordination, auditory reaction, reasoning, and memory tests. Dose-related decreases in pupil size (miosis) were observed following codeine and morphine. Ratings of pain intensity decreased in a dose-related manner for morphine but not for codeine. Plasma codeine and morphine levels varied as an orderly function of dose. These results suggest that oral codeine and morphine are appropriate drugs for outpatient pain relief because they are effective analgesics at doses that have only modest effects on mood, produce few side effects, and do not impair performance. The results also suggest a possible ceiling effect of codeine on analgesia and subjective effects.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cupula of the supraorbital neuromast in the lateral line canal of the clown knifefish contains vertical columns. In the central region of the cupula overlying the macula, these columns are densely packed, are relatively constant in size, and run from the base of the cupula to the surface of the cupula which is exposed to canal fluid. There are two types of columns, dark and light, which form elliptical compartments in planes of section that cut across the columns; the cupula therefore has the appearance of mosaic tile in such sections. The dark compartments contain tubules that extend from the base of the cupula at the junction with the macula to the top of the cupula. Each tubule is associated with the kinocilium of a single hair cell. The lateral parts of the cupula, not overlying the macula, also contain compartments, but these compartments differ in size and structure from those in the central region. In addition to the compartments, the central region of the cupula also contains spherical aggregates of droplets. These small aggregates, termed mora, are found principally in a layer within the central region of the cupula, but are also found outside this layer. Because of their light-reflecting properties, the mora can be used for noninvasive optical measurements in vivo of the motion of the cupula.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: forskolin ; cholera toxin ; pertussis toxin ; interleukin-2 ; T lymphocyte ; G protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The Nb2 T lymphoma is unique in that these lymphocytes proliferate in response to prolactin as well as in response to interleukin-2. In this study, we have examined the responsiveness of the adenylate cyclase system in Nb2 cells and the role of this signaling system in regulating proliferation and protein phosphorylation. An analog of cAMP inhibited prolactin-stimulated proliferation and blocked a prolactin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation. Forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase in T lymphocytes, did not elevate cAMP levels in Nb2 cells and was not an effective inhibitor of prolactin-induced proliferation. In fact, one preparation of forskolin stimulated proliferation of quiescent Nb2 cells. Like forskolin, prostaglandin E2 did not stimulate cAMP production in Nb2 cells even though, it increased cAMP in a preparation of rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cholera toxin appeared to ADP-ribosylate a stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein in Nb2 cells, but the toxin did not increase intracellular levels of cAMP nor was it a potent anti-mitogenic agent. Pertussis toxin, an agent that can increase cAMP production through suppression of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein, exerted only minor anti-proliferative actions on prolactin-stimulated Nb2 cells. These data suggest that cAMP inhibits Nb2 cell proliferation and prolactin-induced changes in protein phosphorylation but that the adenylate cyclase system in our clone of Nb2 cells responds poorly to agents that normally increase cAMP.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: 2D-PAGE ; human tumors ; HEp-3 ; subcellular fractionation ; negative regulators ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Human epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-3) cells are highly tumorigenic and metastatic in vivo, but their metastatic phenotype is progressively and uniquely lost upon serial passage in vitro. The nonmetastatic phenotype is fully reversible to the highly metastatic state when HEp-3 cells are passaged back in vivo.To study the complex process of metastasis and its possible negative regulation by specific gene products, the expression of specific proteins between the highly metastatic and nonmetastatic HEp-3 cells was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and subsequent computer assisted analyses. Concomitant with the in vitro loss of metastatic potential of HEp-3 cells is the elevated expression of a subset of low abundance proteins detectable in 2D-PAGE but not apparent in high resolution one dimensional PAGE. When the HEp-3 cells revert to the metastatic state, the expression of these proteins declines. The increased abundance of four distinct proteins directly correlates with the loss of the metastatic phenotype: two of the four proteins are associated with isolated cellular membranes (36kD, pl 5.7; 22kDa, pl 5.6), on protein fractionates with the cytoplasm (65kD, pl 6.2), and one protein is enriched in the nuclei fraction (32kD, pl 5.8). These data indicate that computer-assisted analysis of highly sensitive, large-format, 2D-PAGE can be used to identify specific proteins in subcellular compartments that are candidates for negative regulators of the metastatic process. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 69 (1941), S. 481-498 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 184 (1985), S. 23-31 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lifelike models of the oscillating legs treated as three-segment systems show the course of kinetic and potential energy over the locomotor cycle for a cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant running at speeds approaching their maxima. The models can be adjusted to eliminate differences among the animals in time intervals, mass or length of limb, and joint angles. This facilitates analysis of the influence on total energy of each of these variables and of the distribution of mass among leg segments. Fast-cycling legs of the carnivore type have significantly more energy than those of the hoofed type. This may contribute to the lesser endurance that is usual for carnivores that hunt using a high-speed dash.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: genome ; calmodulin ; smooth muscle ; immunohistochemistry ; heart ; development ; protein kinase ; tissue selective ; calcium ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We report that the genetic locus that encodes vertebrate smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and kinase-related protein (KRP) has a complex arrangement and a complex pattern of expression. Three proteins are encoded by 31 exons that have only one variation, that of the first exon of KRP, and the genomic locus spans approximately 100 kb of DNA. The three proteins can differ in their relative abundance and localization among tissues and with development. MLCK is a calmodulin (CaM) regulated protein kinase that phosphorylates the light chain of myosin II. The chicken has two MLCK isoforms encoded by the MLCK/KRP locus. KRP does not bind CaM and is not a protein kinase. However, KRP binds to and regulates the structure of myosin II. Thus, KRP and MLCK have the same subcellular target, the myosin II molecular motor system. We examined the tissue and cellular localization of KRP and MLCK in the chicken embryo and in adult chicken tissues. We report on the selective localization of KRP and MLCK among and within tissues and on a differential distribution of the proteins between embryonic and adult tissues. The results fill a void in our knowledge about the organization of the MLCK/KRP genetic locus, which appears to be a late evolving regulatory paradigm, and suggest an independent and complex regulation of expression of the gene products from the MLCK/KRP genetic locus that may reflect a basic principle found in other eukaryotic gene clusters that encode functionally linked proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:402-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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