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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Fentanyl ; Opiates ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Psychomotor performance ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fentanyl is a mu opiate agonist which is occasionally abused by medical personnel who have ready access to the drug. We examined in healthy volunteers (N=13) the subjective and psychomotor-impairing effects of intravenous fentanyl (0–100 µg/70 kg). A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used in which subjects were injected with 0, 25 (N=6), 50 and 100 µg/70 kg fentanyl in a double-blind fashion. Subjects completed several questionnaires commonly used in abuse liability testing studies before drug injection and at periodic intervals for up to 3 h after drug injection. Subjects also completed several psychomotor tests at these times. Some aspects of psychomotor functioning (e.g., eye-hand coordination) were impaired by fentanyl. Fentanyl produced dose-related increases in ratings of “high” and “sedated,” but also tended to produce dysphoria and somatic symptomatology. Most subjects reported liking the effects of the two higher doses of fentanyl for at least a brief time after injection, but they varied widely in their liking ratings across the 3-h post-drug injection period. Despite the transient increases in liking ratings, fentanyl did not increase scores on a widely-used measure of drug-induced euphoria (morphine-benzedrine group scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory). The present results suggest that some medical personnel who experiment with fentanyl may like it, and thus be at increased risk for abusing the drug in the future.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Meperidine ; Opiates ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Psychomotor performance ; Miosis ; Humans ; Healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Meperidine is a mu opiate agonist that is frequently used to treat pain. We examined in healthy volunteers (N=10) the effects of intravenous meperidine (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) on mood and psychomotor performance. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used in which subjects were injected with meperidine or saline in a double-blind fashion. Subjects completed several subjective effects questionnaires commonly used in abuse liability testing studies before drug injection and at periodic intervals for up to 5 h after drug injection. Subjects also completed several psychomotor tests. Meperidine produced a constellation of subjective effects in a dose-related fashion, including increases in ratings of “sedated,” “coasting or spaced out” and “feel drug effect” ratings. Many of the drug's subjective effects persisted up to 4 or 5 h after administration of the 1.0 mg/kg dose. Drug liking ratings assessed on a visual analog scale were increased after meperidine injection in about half of the subjects (P=0.09). Eye-hand coordination was affected slightly by meperidine but other indices of psychomotor functioning were unaffected. Miosis increased in a dose-related fashion. Other physiological parameters, such as vital signs, were not affected by meperidine. We conclude that meperidine in healthy volunteers has robust and long-lasting effects on mood, but may have weaker effects on psychomotor performance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Isoflurane ; Nitrous oxide ; General anesthetic ; Subanesthetic ; Mood ; Subjective effects ; Memory ; Psychomotor performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A prospective, crossover, double-blind trial was conducted in nine healthy volunteers in which the subjective, psychomotor and memory effects of isoflurane (0.0, 0.3 and 0.6%) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (0, 20 and 40%) were examined. Dependent measures included visual analog scales and a standardized drug effects inventory (subjective effects), reaction time and eye-hand coordination (e.g., psychomotor performance), and immediate and delayed free recall (memory). There were some similarities in subjective effects between the two inhaled drugs (e.g., increased ratings of “drunk” and “spaced out”), but isoflurane had effects which N2O did not have. Isoflurane but not N2O increased visual analog scale ratings of “confused,” “sedated,” and “carefree,” and decreased ratings of “in control of thoughts” and “in control of body.” An odor was detected with isoflurane and it was disliked. Psychomotor performance was more grossly impaired during isoflurane inhalation than during N2O inhalation. Psychomotor recovery from both agents was rapid and complete so that 5 min after the inhalation period had ceased, performance had returned to baseline levels. Both isoflurane and nitrous oxide impaired immediate and delayed free recall. The feasibility of using isoflurane in conscious sedation procedures is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Codeine ; Morphine ; Analgesia ; Oral ; Opiate ; Opioid ; Subjective ; Mood ; Psychomotor ; Pain ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of analgesic doses of oral codeine and morphine were examined in 12 healthy volunteers. Subjects ingested placebo, morphine 20 or 40 mg, or codeine 60 or 120 mg in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The smaller and larger doses of each drug were putatively equianalgesic, and the cold-pressor test was included to test this assumption. Codeine and morphine increased ratings of “feel drug effect” but had little effect on other subjective measures, including the Addiction Research Center Inventory, visual analog scales, and adjective checklists. The few subjective effects that were observed were modest and were dose-related for morphine but not for codeine. The drugs did not affect performance on Maddox-Wing, digit-symbol substitution, coordination, auditory reaction, reasoning, and memory tests. Dose-related decreases in pupil size (miosis) were observed following codeine and morphine. Ratings of pain intensity decreased in a dose-related manner for morphine but not for codeine. Plasma codeine and morphine levels varied as an orderly function of dose. These results suggest that oral codeine and morphine are appropriate drugs for outpatient pain relief because they are effective analgesics at doses that have only modest effects on mood, produce few side effects, and do not impair performance. The results also suggest a possible ceiling effect of codeine on analgesia and subjective effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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