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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Pes cavus ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Pathology ; Morphometry ; Peroneus longus hypertrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Enlargement of the peroneus longus muscle is a common occurrence in patients with forefoot pes cavus, and may contribute to the cavus deformity. The present study compares the morphology of up to five lower leg muscles from 17 patients with forefoot pes cavus with those of normal muscles. Eight cases had an identifiable neurogenic cause for the cavus. In four cases of hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy, the tibialis anterior showed more severe damage than the peroneus longus. In two cases of cerebral palsy, fibre atrophy and increased oxidative enzyme activity were observed. In nine clinically idiopathic cases, the histological appearances ranged from normal to generalised fibre atrophy or hypertrophy in individual muscles. There was a trend for the mean fibre area to be greater in peroneus longus than in tibialis anterior in six of the idiopathic group of patients. The muscle cross-sectional area on magnetic resonance imaging was correlated closely with the mean fibre area measured on tissue sections. In idiopathic forefoot pes cavus, fibre hypertrophy in peroneus longus (relative to tibialis anterior) may contribute to the cavus deformity. Muscle fibre hyperplasia may contribute to the peroneal muscle enlargement in Friedreich's ataxia. In none of the cases was peroneus longus enlargement due to fat or fibrous tissue replacement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Pes cavus ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Pathology ; Morphometry ; Peroneus longus hypertrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Enlargement of the peroneus longus muscle is a common occurrence in patients with forefoot pes cavus, and may contribute to the cavus deformity. The present study compares the morphology of up to five lower leg muscles from 17 patients with forefoot pes cavus with those of normal muscles. Eight cases had an identifiable neurogenic cause for the cavus. In four cases of hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy, the tibialis anterior showed more severe damage than the peroneus longus. In two cases of cerebral palsy, fibre atrophy and increased oxidative enzyme activity were observed. In nine clinically idiopathic cases, the histological appearances ranged from normal to generalised fibre atrophy or hypertrophy in individual muscles. There was a trend for the mean fibre area to be greater in peroneus longus than in tibialis anterior in six of the idiopathic group of patients. The muscle cross-sectional area on magnetic resonance imaging was correlated closely with the mean fibre area measured on tissue sections. In idiopathic forefoot pes cavus, fibre hypertrophy in peroneus longus (relative to tibialis anterior) may contribute to the cavus deformity. Muscle fibre hyperplasia may contribute to the peroneal muscle enlargement in Friedreich's ataxia. In none of the cases was peroneus longus enlargement due to fat or fibrous tissue replacement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 236 (1938), S. 310-319 
    ISSN: 0863-1786
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1Es werden mehrere Proben von Tetracalciumaluminiumferrit (4 CaO·Al2O3 · Fe2O3) hergestellt und ihre Lösungswärmen in einem Überschuß von HC1·20 H2,/O bestimmt.2Die Lösungswärme beträgt bei 20°C für lg 4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3 2217 int. Joule (530,5 kcal20°) und für ein Mol 1077, 4 kj. (257,s kcal20°).
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 30 (1984), S. 583-593 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple particle model is used to interpret differential thermogravimetric data taken on the gasification of coal/char with CO2, H2 and H2O. The model takes into account the major physical factors which influence the gasification rate, viz., the changing magnitudes of surface area, porosity, activation energy and effective diffusivity during gasification. Specific reaction rate constants based on surface area and activation energies are extracted from the data. Practical criteria for regimes of reaction rate and diffusion control and for particle isothermality are developed. For isothermal particles at low classical Thiele moduli, the data can be correlated with only one parameter, which has a simple physical interpretation.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 2 (1956), S. 148-152 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An investigation using the hexone-water system was made of flooding in a 1-in.-diam. ten-plate pulse column. An analysis of column operation led to the derivation of an equation for predicting conditions of inadequate pulsation and for establishing the amount of liquid recycled under any operating conditions.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 17 (1988), S. 241-244 
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry has been demonstrated for the qualitative analysis of mixtures of dansylated amines and compared with high-performance liquid chromatography for the quantification of some individual amines from meat products.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Tubings extruded from one batch of polyvinylchloride resin at five temperatures ranging from 110 to 205°C were tested for thrombogenicity in the saphenous vein and aorta of sheep. There was more thrombus in both the vein and aorta on tubings extruded at lower temperatures. The surface areas of renal infarction were smaller when lower temperature tubings were inserted into the aorta. Scanning electron microscopy showed that lower extrusion temperatures caused greater roughness on the tubings. This greater roughness was confirmed by roughness measurements. It is suggested that the association which has been demonstrated between roughness and thrombus formation might be due to the degree of adhesion of the thrombus to the surface rather than to differences in thrombogenicity.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Eight acrylic bone cement products were examined according to the methods set out in three published performance standards, viz., Australian Standard 2265 Part 1, 1979, ASTM specification F451-76, and the ISO specification 5833/1, 1979. In addition, chemical analyses were carried out by GC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy as well as refractive index measurement, all to establish the main constituent of the products. All the products compiled to the physical, compositional, and sterility requirements of AS 2265. However, all but one sample failed to comply with the solubility requirements of ASTM F451-76. Also, none of the samples compiled with the doughing time requirements of ISO 5833/1. On further analysis, the results suggest that the water solubility and sorption requirements of ASTM F451-76 are restrictive and that the ISO doughing time test methodology requires modification. Various degrees of noncompliance to the requirement of all three specifications were noted on the labeling and in the information content of product inserts. Two additional clauses on mixing tools and radiopacity have been suggested for incorporation into the above standards.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Quantifiable frozen-stress photoelastic techniques were used to analyze stresses induced in mandibular models by a conventional free-end saddle removable partial denture. Four quasi-anatomical mandibular models were constructed for processing, together with their respective calibration specimens, through identical time/temperature stress-freezing cycles. After processing and slicing, an unloaded control model demonstrated some low-order fringes adjacent to the coronal third of the abutment tooth roots, but was otherwise stress free. A lower bilateral free-end saddle partial denture was constructed and fitted in turn to each of the remaining three models. Each denture/model combination was then loaded and processed through a stress-freezing cycle. After processing, 6-mm slices were cut from selected regions for analysis for the presence of stresses. Using a polariscope with circular polarized, monochromatic light, values for maximum shear stress were calculated at selected points in the slices taken from the three loaded models. Variations up to 28% of the mean were obtained for the three experimental models as compared with the consistent results for the material fringe values obtained from the calibration specimens. The study pointed out the problems involved in using photoelastic stress analysis on complicated anatomical models. The interpretation of the results from such studies should be approached with caution.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Cross-coupling chemistry is widely applied to carbon-carbon bond formation in the synthesis of medicines, agrochemicals, and other functional materials. Recently, single-electron–induced variants of this reaction class have proven particularly useful in the formation of C(sp 2 )–C(sp 3 ) linkages, although certain compound classes have remained a challenge. Here, we report the use of sulfones to activate the alkyl coupling partner in nickel-catalyzed radical cross-coupling with aryl zinc reagents. This method’s tolerance of fluoroalkyl substituents proved particularly advantageous for the streamlined preparation of pharmaceutically oriented fluorinated scaffolds that previously required multiple steps, toxic reagents, and nonmodular retrosynthetic blueprints. Five specific sulfone reagents facilitate the rapid assembly of a vast set of compounds, many of which contain challenging fluorination patterns.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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