Key words Pes cavus
Magnetic resonance imaging
Peroneus longus hypertrophy
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Enlargement of the peroneus longus muscle is a common occurrence in patients with forefoot pes cavus, and may contribute to the cavus deformity. The present study compares the morphology of up to five lower leg muscles from 17 patients with forefoot pes cavus with those of normal muscles. Eight cases had an identifiable neurogenic cause for the cavus. In four cases of hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy, the tibialis anterior showed more severe damage than the peroneus longus. In two cases of cerebral palsy, fibre atrophy and increased oxidative enzyme activity were observed. In nine clinically idiopathic cases, the histological appearances ranged from normal to generalised fibre atrophy or hypertrophy in individual muscles. There was a trend for the mean fibre area to be greater in peroneus longus than in tibialis anterior in six of the idiopathic group of patients. The muscle cross-sectional area on magnetic resonance imaging was correlated closely with the mean fibre area measured on tissue sections. In idiopathic forefoot pes cavus, fibre hypertrophy in peroneus longus (relative to tibialis anterior) may contribute to the cavus deformity. Muscle fibre hyperplasia may contribute to the peroneal muscle enlargement in Friedreich's ataxia. In none of the cases was peroneus longus enlargement due to fat or fibrous tissue replacement.
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