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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Protamine ; Blood-brain barrier ; Endogenous albumin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cellular mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening to endogenous albumin in the mouse brain after intracarotid infusion of solutions of protamine free base (PB) or protamine sulfate (PS) were studied using quantitative immunocytochemistry. Ultrathin sections of brain samples embedded at low temperature in Lowicryl K4M were exposed to anti-mouse albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. Using morphometry, the density of immunosignals (gold particles per μm2) was recorded over four compartments: vascular lumen, endothelial profiles, subendothelial space (including the basement membrane), and brain parenchyma (neuropil). In addition, the adsorption of endogenous albumin evidenced by the number of gold particles per μm of the endothelial luminal plasmalemma was quantitatively evaluated. In the applied experimental conditions, PB was found to be strongly cytotoxic as indicated by the appearance of rapid degenerative changes and the disruption of the endothelial lining with concomitant clumping of the blood plasma. The action of PS was milder, offering a better opportunity for detailed ultrastructural and morphometric examination of brain samples during consecutive steps of PS action (2, 5, 10 and 30 min). As early as 10 min after infusion of PS solution, the adsorption of blood plasma albumin to the endothelial luminal surface was increased 2.5 times. Simultaneously, the immunolabelling of the endothelial profiles and subendothelial space was significantly increased. These results suggest that BBB disruption occurs through enhanced adsorption of albumin or albumin-protamine complexes to the luminal plasmalemma, followed by transendothelial vesicular transport, rather than through modification of interendothelial junctional complexes. This process appears to be focally disseminated throughout the cerebral vascular network and declines at 30 min following infusion of PS solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Protamine ; Blood-brain barrier ; Endogenous albumin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cellular mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening to endogenous albumin in the mouse brain after intracarotid infusion of solutions of protamine free base (PB) or protamine sulfate (PS) were studied using quantitative immunocytochemistry. Ultrathin sections of brain samples embedded at low temperature in Lowicryl. K4M were exposed to anti-mouse albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. Using morphometry, the density of immunosignals (gold particles per μm2) was recorded over four compartments: vascular lumen, endothelial profiles, subendothelial space (including the basement membrane), and brain parenchyma (neuropil). In addition, the adsorption of endogenous albumin evidenced by the number of gold particles per μm of the endothelial luminal plasmalemma was quantitatively evaluated. In the applied experimental conditions, PB was found to be strongly cytotoxic as indicated by the appearance of rapid degenerative changes and the disruption of the endothelial lining with concomitant clumping of the blood plasma. The action of PS was milder, offering a better opportunity for detailed ultrastructural and morphometric examination of brain samples during consecutive steps of PS action (2, 5, 10 and 30 min). As early as 10 min after infusion of PS solution, the adsorption of blood plasma albumin to the endothelial luminal surface was increased 2.5 times. Simultaneously, the immunolabelling of the endothelial profiles and subendothelial space was significantly increased. These results suggest that BBB disruption occurs through enhanced adsorption of albumin or albumin-protamine complexes to the luminal plasmalemma, followed by transendothelial vesicular transport, rather than through modification of interendothelial junctional complexes. This process appears to be focally disseminated throughout the cerebral vascular network and declines at 30 min following infusion of PS solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy ; Transthyretin ; Ultrastructure ; Lectin histochemistry ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We performed extensive quantitative analyses of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of two siblings with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) caused by a transthyretin (TTR) Gly42 mutation. Pronounced amyloid deposition was found in the sympathetic ganglia (SyG), dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and throughout the length of the peripheral nerve fibers with some accentuation in the more proximal portion. There was severe neuronal loss in the SyG and DRG together with nerve fiber depletion in the nerve trunk, while only a small amount of amyloid deposition with mild fiber loss was seen in the spinal roots. Sprouts of regenerating axons were very scanty even in the spinal nerves or roots. A teased fiber study mainly showed demyelinating fibers, but axonal degeneration was also present throughout peripheral nerves. An electron microscopic study showed fine amyloid fibrils in direct contact with the axoplasmic membrane of demyelinated axons and destruction of axons in some areas. Amyloid deposition within the PNS in this type of FAP resembled that in type I FAP (TTR Met30). However, direct axonal damage by amyloid fibrils appeared to be more prominent in our cases than in type I FAP. Lectin histochemistry using Ulex europaeus agglutinin I demonstrated preferential depletion of small neurons in the DRG and their primary afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn. Primary axonal degeneration and ganglionopathy due to amyloid deposition appear to be the pathogenetic mechanisms for peripheral neuropathy in this type of FAP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Familial amyloid polyneuropathy ; Transthyretin ; Ultrastructure ; Lectin histochemistry ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We performed extensive quantitative analyses of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of two siblings with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) caused by a transthyretin (TTR) Gly42 mutation. Pronounced amyloid deposition was found in the sympathetic ganglia (SyG), dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and throughout the length of the peripheral nerve fibers with some accentuation in the more proximal portion. There was severe neuronal loss in the SyG and DRG together with nerve fiber depletion in the nerve trunk, while only a small amount of amyloid deposition with mild fiber loss was seen in the spinal roots. Sprouts of regenerating axons were very scanty even in the spinal nerves or roots. A teased fiber study mainly showed demyelinating fibers, but axonal degeneration was also present throughout peripheral nerves. An electron microscopic study showed fine amyloid fibrils in direct contact with the axoplasmic membrane of demyelinated axons and destruction of axons in some areas. Amyloid deposition within the PNS in this type of FAP resembled that in type I FAP (TTR Met30). However, direct axonal damage by amyloid fibrils appeared to be more prominent in our cases than in type I FAP. Lectin histochemistry using Ulex europaeus agglutinin I demonstrated preferential depletion of small neurons in the DRG and their primary afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn. Primary axonal degeneration and ganglionopathy due to amyloid deposition appear to be the pathogenetic mechanisms for peripheral neuropathy in this type of FAP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1860-1499
    Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma ; Tumor grade ; Ultrastructure ; Morphometry ; Cell organelles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In 31 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, electron microscopic observation and morphometry on the cell organelles were carried out to evaluate the usefulness of electron microscopy for the diagnosis of well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. The cell organelles in well differentiated tumor cells were very similar to those in normal hepatocytes or hepatocytes with liver cirrhosis (LC). We found that in poorly differentiated tumor cells, the nuclear area, N/C ratio, nucleolar area, the amount of dispersed chromatin, and the number of free ribosomes had increased, but the cellular area, degree of nuclear roundness, and mitochondrial area had decreased. These results seem to indicate that electron microscopy is not as useful as light microscopy in the diagnosis of well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma, but is useful in the study of poorly differentiated tumor cells, which indicated that the cell proliferation through mitoses was activated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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