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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-10-19
    Description: Nuclear-architecture defects have been shown to correlate with the manifestation of a number of human diseases as well as ageing. It is therefore plausible that diseases whose manifestations correlate with ageing might be connected to the appearance of nuclear aberrations over time. We decided to evaluate nuclear organization in the context of ageing-associated disorders by focusing on a leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) dominant mutation (G2019S; glycine-to-serine substitution at amino acid 2019), which is associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease as well as impairment of adult neurogenesis in mice. Here we report on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from Parkinson's disease patients and the implications of LRRK2(G2019S) mutation in human neural-stem-cell (NSC) populations. Mutant NSCs showed increased susceptibility to proteasomal stress as well as passage-dependent deficiencies in nuclear-envelope organization, clonal expansion and neuronal differentiation. Disease phenotypes were rescued by targeted correction of the LRRK2(G2019S) mutation with its wild-type counterpart in Parkinson's disease iPSCs and were recapitulated after targeted knock-in of the LRRK2(G2019S) mutation in human embryonic stem cells. Analysis of human brain tissue showed nuclear-envelope impairment in clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease patients. Together, our results identify the nucleus as a previously unknown cellular organelle in Parkinson's disease pathology and may help to open new avenues for Parkinson's disease diagnoses as well as for the potential development of therapeutics targeting this fundamental cell structure.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504651/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504651/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Guang-Hui -- Qu, Jing -- Suzuki, Keiichiro -- Nivet, Emmanuel -- Li, Mo -- Montserrat, Nuria -- Yi, Fei -- Xu, Xiuling -- Ruiz, Sergio -- Zhang, Weiqi -- Wagner, Ulrich -- Kim, Audrey -- Ren, Bing -- Li, Ying -- Goebl, April -- Kim, Jessica -- Soligalla, Rupa Devi -- Dubova, Ilir -- Thompson, James -- Yates, John 3rd -- Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez -- Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GTB07001/Telethon/Italy -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 22;491(7425):603-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11557. Epub 2012 Oct 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ghliu@ibp.ac.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075850" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cell Line ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Mutant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology ; Nuclear Envelope/genetics/pathology ; Parkinson Disease/*pathology ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*genetics/*metabolism ; Stress, Physiological
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-06-27
    Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Winzer, Thilo -- Kern, Marcelo -- King, Andrew J -- Larson, Tony R -- Teodor, Roxana I -- Donninger, Samantha L -- Li, Yi -- Dowle, Adam A -- Cartwright, Jared -- Bates, Rachel -- Ashford, David -- Thomas, Jerry -- Walker, Carol -- Bowser, Tim A -- Graham, Ian A -- BB/K018809/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):309-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1852. Epub 2015 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; Bioscience Technology Facility, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; GlaxoSmithKline, 1061 Mountain Highway, Post Office Box 168, Boronia, Victoria 3155, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113639" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry/*metabolism ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics/*metabolism ; Genetic Loci ; Isoquinolines/chemistry/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Papaver/*enzymology/genetics ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-05
    Description: Adrenal Cushing's syndrome is caused by excess production of glucocorticoid from adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias, which leads to metabolic disorders. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 49 blood-tumor pairs and RNA sequencing of 44 tumors from cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasias (AIMAHs), and adrenocortical oncocytomas (ADOs). We identified a hotspot in the PRKACA gene with a L205R mutation in 69.2% (27 out of 39) of ACAs and validated in 65.5% of a total of 87 ACAs. Our data revealed that the activating L205R mutation, which locates in the P+1 loop of the protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit, promoted PKA substrate phosphorylation and target gene expression. Moreover, we discovered the recurrently mutated gene DOT1L in AIMAHs and CLASP2 in ADOs. Collectively, these data highlight potentially functional mutated genes in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cao, Yanan -- He, Minghui -- Gao, Zhibo -- Peng, Ying -- Li, Yanli -- Li, Lin -- Zhou, Weiwei -- Li, Xiangchun -- Zhong, Xu -- Lei, Yiming -- Su, Tingwei -- Wang, Hang -- Jiang, Yiran -- Yang, Lin -- Wei, Wei -- Yang, Xu -- Jiang, Xiuli -- Liu, Li -- He, Juan -- Ye, Junna -- Wei, Qing -- Li, Yingrui -- Wang, Weiqing -- Wang, Jun -- Ning, Guang -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):913-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1249480. Epub 2014 Apr 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumors, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. ; BGI-Shanghai, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. ; Department of Pathology, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. ; Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumors, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. guangning@medmail.com.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn wqingw@hotmail.com. ; BGI-Shanghai, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. guangning@medmail.com.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn wqingw@hotmail.com. ; Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumors, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Laboratory of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai, China. guangning@medmail.com.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn wqingw@hotmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/*genetics/*metabolism ; Adrenocortical Adenoma/*genetics/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Arginine/genetics ; Catalytic Domain/genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; Cushing Syndrome/*genetics ; Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry/*genetics ; Glucocorticoids/metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/*metabolism ; Leucine/genetics ; Methyltransferases/genetics ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Mutation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-27
    Description: Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are benign tumors that affect millions of women worldwide and that can cause considerable morbidity. To study the genetic basis of this tumor type, we examined 18 uterine leiomyomas derived from 17 different patients by exome sequencing and identified tumor-specific mutations in the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) gene in 10. Through analysis of 207 additional tumors, we determined that MED12 is altered in 70% (159 of 225) of tumors from a total of 80 patients. The Mediator complex is a 26-subunit transcriptional regulator that bridges DNA regulatory sequences to the RNA polymerase II initiation complex. All mutations resided in exon 2, suggesting that aberrant function of this region of MED12 contributes to tumorigenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Makinen, Netta -- Mehine, Miika -- Tolvanen, Jaana -- Kaasinen, Eevi -- Li, Yilong -- Lehtonen, Heli J -- Gentile, Massimiliano -- Yan, Jian -- Enge, Martin -- Taipale, Minna -- Aavikko, Mervi -- Katainen, Riku -- Virolainen, Elina -- Bohling, Tom -- Koski, Taru A -- Launonen, Virpi -- Sjoberg, Jari -- Taipale, Jussi -- Vahteristo, Pia -- Aaltonen, Lauri A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):252-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1208930. Epub 2011 Aug 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Genetics, Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Codon ; Exons ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Humans ; INDEL Mutation ; Introns ; Leiomyoma/*genetics/metabolism ; Mediator Complex/*genetics ; Mutation ; Mutation, Missense ; Signal Transduction ; Uterine Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-08-28
    Description: Plants possess arrays of functionally diverse specialized metabolites, many of which are distributed taxonomically. Here, we describe the evolution of a class of substituted alpha-pyrone metabolites in Arabidopsis, which we have named arabidopyrones. The biosynthesis of arabidopyrones requires a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP84A4) to generate the catechol-substituted substrate for an extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase (AtLigB). Unlike other ring-cleavage-derived plant metabolites made from tyrosine, arabidopyrones are instead derived from phenylalanine through the early steps of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Whereas CYP84A4, an Arabidopsis-specific paralog of the lignin-biosynthetic enzyme CYP84A1, has neofunctionalized relative to its ancestor, AtLigB homologs are widespread among land plants and many bacteria. This study exemplifies the rapid evolution of a biochemical pathway formed by the addition of a new biological activity into an existing metabolic infrastructure.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weng, Jing-Ke -- Li, Yi -- Mo, Huaping -- Chapple, Clint -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 24;337(6097):960-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1221614.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923580" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Base Sequence ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; Catalytic Domain ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Dioxygenases/genetics/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication ; Genome, Plant ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Phenylalanine/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Plant Stems/metabolism ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Pyrones/chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-07-23
    Description: A newly emerged H7N9 virus has caused 132 human infections with 37 deaths in China since 18 February 2013. Control measures in H7N9 virus-positive live poultry markets have reduced the number of infections; however, the character of the virus, including its pandemic potential, remains largely unknown. We systematically analyzed H7N9 viruses isolated from birds and humans. The viruses were genetically closely related and bound to human airway receptors; some also maintained the ability to bind to avian airway receptors. The viruses isolated from birds were nonpathogenic in chickens, ducks, and mice; however, the viruses isolated from humans caused up to 30% body weight loss in mice. Most importantly, one virus isolated from humans was highly transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Our findings indicate nothing to reduce the concern that these viruses can transmit between humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Qianyi -- Shi, Jianzhong -- Deng, Guohua -- Guo, Jing -- Zeng, Xianying -- He, Xijun -- Kong, Huihui -- Gu, Chunyang -- Li, Xuyong -- Liu, Jinxiong -- Wang, Guojun -- Chen, Yan -- Liu, Liling -- Liang, Libin -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Fan, Jun -- Wang, Jinliang -- Li, Wenhui -- Guan, Lizheng -- Li, Qimeng -- Yang, Huanliang -- Chen, Pucheng -- Jiang, Li -- Guan, Yuntao -- Xin, Xiaoguang -- Jiang, Yongping -- Tian, Guobin -- Wang, Xiurong -- Qiao, Chuanling -- Li, Chengjun -- Bu, Zhigao -- Chen, Hualan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):410-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1240532. Epub 2013 Jul 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, People's Republic of China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868922" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chickens/virology ; Columbidae/virology ; Ducks/virology ; Ferrets/*virology ; Genes, Viral ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A virus/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Influenza in Birds/virology ; Influenza, Human/*transmission/*virology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*transmission/*virology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Respiratory System/*virology ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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