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  • 1
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; CELL ; GENE ; PATIENT ; ACID ; MUTATIONS ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ; acute myeloid leukemia ; MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME ; NORMAL CYTOGENETICS ; STUDY-GROUP ULM ; fludarabine ; all-trans retinoic acid ; CYTOSINE-ARABINOSIDE ; GENE MUTATION ; YOUNGER ADULTS ; OLDER ; predictive factor ; nucleophosmin-1 mutation ; T(5/17) VARIANT
    Abstract: Background In a previous randomized trial, AML HD98B, we showed that administration of all-trans retinoic acid in addition to intensive chemotherapy improved the outcome of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prognostic impact of gene mutations and to identify predictive genetic factors for the all-trans retinoic acid treatment effect. Design and Methods Data from mutation analyses of the NPM1, CEBPA, FLT3, and MLL genes were correlated with outcome in patients 61 years and older treated within the AML HD98B trial. Results The frequencies of mutations were: NPM1, 23%. CEBPA, 8.5% (analysis restricted to patients with a normal karyotype); FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITD), 17%; FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations, 5%; and MLL partial tandem duplications, 4.5%. T e genotype mutant NPM1 was positively and adverse cytogenetics as well as higher white blood cell count negatively correlated with achievement of complete remission. In Cox regression analysis, a significant interaction between the genotype mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD and treatment with all-trans retinoic acid was identified, in that the beneficial effect of all-trans retinoic acid on relapse-free and overall survival was restricted to this subgroup of patients. Other significant factors for survival were age, adverse cytogenetics, and logarithm of white cell count. Conclusions In elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia, NPM1 mutations are associated with achievement of complete remission, and the genotype 'mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD' appears to be a predictive marker for response to all-trans retinoic acid given as an adjunct to intensive chemotherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00151242)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19059939
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  • 2
    Keywords: PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVATION ; STEM-CELL TRANSPLANTATION ; NORMAL CYTOGENETICS ; POSTREMISSION THERAPY ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; INTERNAL TANDEM DUPLICATION ; ADULT PATIENTS ; FLT3-activating mutations ; FLT3 MUTATIONS
    Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of allelic ratio and insertion site (IS) of internal tandem duplications (ITD), as well as concurrent gene mutations with regard to postremission therapy in 323 patients with FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Increasing FLT3-ITD allelic ratio (p=0.004) and IS in the tyrosine kinase domain 1 (TKD1, p=0.06) were associated with low complete remission (CR) rates. After postremission therapy including intensive chemotherapy (CTX, n=121) or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, n=17), an allelic ratio 〉/=0.51 was associated with an unfavorable relapse-free (RFS, p=0.0008) and overall survival (OS, p=0.004); after allogeneic HSCT (n=93), outcome was significantly improved in patients with a high allelic ratio (RFS, p=0.02; OS, p=0.03), whereas no benefit was seen in patients with low allelic ratio (RFS, p=0.38; OS, p=0.64). Multivariable analyses revealed a high allelic ratio as a predictive factor for the beneficial effect of allogeneic HSCT; ITD IS in TKD1 remained an unfavorable factor, whereas no prognostic impact of concurrent gene mutations was observed. The clinical trials described herein were previously published or are registered as follows: AML HD93, reference 29; AML HD98A, reference 30; AMLSG 07-04, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00151242.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25270908
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