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  • Na+ coupled transport  (3)
  • Electron-attracting groups  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Electron-attracting groups ; Electron-donating groups ; Hydrophobicity ; Amiloride ; Cimetidine ; N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to evaluate whether N-containing substrates interact with the organic “anion” (p-aminohippurate, PAH) or only with the organic “cation” (N 1-methylnicotinamide, NMeN) transport system or with both, the stop-flow peritubular capillary microperfusion method was applied in the rat kidney in situ and the apparent K i values of several classes or organic substrate against contraluminal NMeN and PAH transport were determined. Organic “anion” and organic “cation” transport are in inverted commas because neither transporter sees the degree of ionization in bulk solution, and they also accept nonionizable substrates [Ullrich KJ, Rumrich G (1992) Pflügers Arch 421:286–288]. Amines must be sufficiently hydrophobic (phenylethylamine, piperidine, piperazine) in order to interact with NMeN transport. Additional Cl, Br, NO2 or other electronegative groups render them inhibitory towards PAH transport also. Such bisubstrate amines were identified as follows: metoclopramide, bromopride, diphenhydramine, bromodiphenhydramine, verapamil, citalopram, ketamine, mefloquine, ipsapirone, buspirone, trazodone, H7 and trifluoperazine. Imidazole analogues interact with both transporters if they bear sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl or aryl groups or electronegative sidegroups. Bisubstrate imidazole analogues are tinidazole, pilocarpine, clonidine, azidoclonidine and cimetidine. Pyridines and thiazoles interact with the NMeN transporter if they have an additional ring-attached NH2 group. Again with an additional Cl, Br, or NO2 group the aminopyridines and aminothiazoles also become inhibitors for the PAH transporter. Amongst the guanidines only substances with several electronegative side-groups such as guanfacine, amiloride, benzylamiloride and ranitidine, interact with both transporters. Amongst the phenylhydrazines only 4-bromophenylhydrazine interacts with the NMeN transporter and 4-nitrophenylhydrazine with both transporters. Quinoline (isoquinoline) and its amino and hydroxy analogues interact with both transporters, their pKa values correlate directly with the affinity to the NMeN transporter and reciprocally with their affinity to the PAH transporter. In experiments with labelled substrates only the sufficiently hydrophilic cimetidine, amiloride and ranitidine show a saturable transport, which can be inhibited by probenecid (apalcillin) and tetraethylammonium in an additive manner. The highly hydrophobic substrates verapamil, citalopram, imipramine, diltiazem and clonidine enter the cell very fast in an unsaturable and uninhibitable manner, apparently in the undissociated form, since N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, which — disregarding its ionization — is similarly hydrophobic, shows a transport behaviour similar to that of tetraethylammonium [Ullrich et al. (1991) Pflügers Arch 419:84–92]. Ethidium bromide and dimidium bromide, which have a permanent cationic quaternary nitrogen and two sufficiently electronegative NH2 groups, also interact with both transporters. The data indicate that a molecule qualifies as a bisubstrate if it carries both the essentials for organic anion (PAH) transport: hydrophobicity, sufficient acidity or electron-attracting O, OH, Cl, Br, NO2 groups, plus the essentials for organic cation transport: hydrophobicity, sufficient basicity or electron-donating N-containing groups. The nitrogen atoms in the N-containing molecules quinoline (pK a 4.9), isoquinoline (pK a 5.4) and benzylpyridine (pK a 5.13) are of such low basicity that they apparently can also interact with the PAH transporter. Apparent hydrophobicity (disregarding ionization) determines interaction with the transporters, while real hydrophobicity [log (octanol distribution values)] determines the diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Electron-attracting groups ; Electron-donating groups ; Hydrophobicity ; Corticosteroids ; Androstene analogues
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to test what chemical structure is required for a substrate to interact not only with the contraluminal organic anion (p-aminohippurate, PAH) transporter, but also with the organic cation (N 1-methylnicotinamide, NMeN, or tetraethylammonium, TEA) transporter, the stop-flow peritubular capillary perfusion method was applied and app. K i values were evaluated. Zwitterionic hydrophobic dipeptides not only interact with PAH but also with NMeN transport although with lower inhibitory potency (K i,PAH=0.2–1.4; K i,NMeN 614 mmol/l). Amongst the zwitterionic cephalosporins, which all inhibit PAH transport, the amino cephalosporin analogue cefadroxil was identified to interact also with NMeN transport (K i,PAH = 3.0, K i,NMeN=11.2 mmol/l). All Zwitterionic naphthyridine and oxochinoline gyrase inhibitors tested inhibit NMeN transport with app. K i,NMeN values between 1.2 mmol/l and 4.7 mmol/l; the naphthyridine analogues show a good inhibitory potency against PAH transport (K i,PAH ≈ 0.4 mmol/l), the piperazine-containing quinolone analogues have a moderate inhibitory potency (K i,PAH=1.1–2.5 mmol/l) and the piperazine-containing pipemidic acid did not inhibit PAH transport at all. Zwitterionic thiazolidine carboxylate phosphamides also interact with both transporters (app. K i,PAH ≈ 3.0; app. K i,NMeN ≈ 18.0 mmol/l). The nonionizable oxo- and hydroxy-group-containing corticosteroid hormones also interact with the two transporters. (a) An OH group in position 21 is necessary for interaction with the PAH transporter, but not for interaction with the TEA transporter. (b) Introduction of an OH group in position 17α abolishes interaction with the TEA transporter, but has different effects with the PAH transporter. (c) Introduction of an OH group in position 6 abolishes interaction with both, the PAH and the TEA transporter. (d) A change of the side-group in position 11 of corticosterone from -OH to -H to=O enhances interaction with the PAH transporter but has no effect on the interaction with the TEA transporter. Nonionizable 4- or 5-androstene analogues inhibit both transporters with app. K i between 0.16 mmol/l and 0.64 mmol/l, if the steroids are soluble in a concentration greater than 1 mmol/l. Nonionizable oxazaphosphorins with more than one chloroethyl group interact with the PAH transporter with app. K i between 0.84mmol/l and 4.9mmol/l and with the NMeN transporter with app. K i between 3.2 mmol/l and 18.7 mmol/l. Thus a substrate interacts with both transporters if it is sufficiently hydrophobic, possesses acidic and/or electron-attracting plus basic and/or electron-donating groups, or possesses several electron-attracting nonionizable groups (O, OH, Cl). A certain spatial arrangement of the interacting groups seems to be necessary.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Renal tubule ; H+ ion secretion ; Na+ coupled transport ; Ouabain ; SITS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rate of active transport by the proximal renal tubule of amino acid (l-histidine), sugar (α-methyl-d-glycoside), H+ ions (glycodiazine), phosphate and para-aminohippurate was evaluated by measuring the zero net flux concentration difference (Δc) of these substances. In the case of calcium the electrochemical potential differenceΔc +zFci Δϕ/RT) was the criterion employed. The rate of isotonic Na+-absorption (JNa) was measured with the shrinking droplet method. The effect of ouabain on the transport of these substances was tested in the golden hamster and the effect of SITS (4-acetamido-4′isothiocyanatostilbene 2,2′-disulfonic acid) was observed in rats. Ouabain (1 mM) applied peritubularly incompletely inhibited JNa (80%), but in combination with acetazolamide (0.2 mM) the inhibition was almost complete (93%). In addition, ouabain inhibited the sodium coupled (secondary active) transport processes ofl-histidine, α-methyl-d-glycoside, calcium and phosphate by more than 75%. It did not affect H+ (glycodiazine) transport and PAH transport was only slightly affected. When SITS (1 mM) was applied from both sides of the cell it inhibited H+ (glycodiazine) transport by 72% and reduced JNa by 38% when given from only the peritubular cell side. SITS (1 mM), however, had no significant affect on H+ secretion and sodium reabsorption if it was applied from only the luminal side. Furthermore it had no affect on the other transport processes tested, regardless of the cell side to which it was applied. When the HCO 3 − buffer or physically related buffers were omitted from the perfusate the absorption of Na+ was reduced by 66%, phosphate by 44%, andl-histidine by 15%. All the other transport processes tested were not significantly affected. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the active transport processes of histidine, α-methyl-d-glycoside and phosphate, which are located in the brush border, are driven by a sodium gradient which is abolished by ouabain. This may also apply to the Na+-Ca2+ countertransport located at the contraluminal cell side. The residual Na+ transport remaining in the presence of ouabain is likely to be passively driven by the continuing H+ transport which probably is driven directly by ATP. SITS seems to inhibit the exit step of HCO 3 − from the cell and secondary to that, the luminal H+-Na+ exchange and consequently the Na+ reabsorption. In the absence of HCO 3 − buffer in the perfusates the luminal H+-Na+ exchange seems to be affected and the pattern of inhibition of the other transport processes is almost the same as with SITS. The different effects onP i reabsorption observed under these conditions might be explained by possible variations in intracellular pH.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Renal tubule ; Sulfate transport ; Na+ coupled transport ; Thiosulfate ; Molybdate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using the standing droplet technique in the proximal convolution and simultaneous microperfusion of the peritubular capillaries, the decrease in luminal sulfate concentration with time and the zero net flux transtubular concentration difference of sulfate ( $$\Delta c_{{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2 - }}} } $$ ) at 45 s was determined — the latter being taken as a measure of the rate of active sulfate reabsorption. Starting with 0.5 mmol/l sulfate in both perfusates the $$\Delta c_{{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2 - }}} } $$ value of 0.35 mmol/l was approached exponentially with a half value time of 4.3 s. The $$\Delta c_{{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2 - }}} } $$ values in the early proximal and late proximal convolution did not deviate from each other. If the Na+ concentration in the perfusates was reduced, the $$\Delta c_{{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2 - }}} } $$ approached zero and extrapolated to a slightly negative value (c i〉c o). When 1 mmol/l ouabain was added to the perfusates $$\Delta c_{{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2 - }}} } $$ decreased by 66% (the latter experiments were performed in the golden hamster which is more sensitive to ouabain than the rat). 1 mmol/l thiosulfate diminished $$\Delta c_{{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2 - }}} } $$ by 68% and 1 mmol/l molybdate by 24%. Omitting or replacing bicarbonate by HEPES or glycodiazine reduced the sulfate reabsorption significantly, while acetazolamide (0.1 mmol/l) and increasing the CO2-pressure from 4.66 to 14.0 kPa (i.e. 5–15% CO2) had no effect. SITS 1 mmol/l had no effect on sulfate reabsorption. The data indicate that the sulfate reabsorption is driven by a Na+ gradient and inhibited by thiosulfate and molybdate, i.e. molecules which have a similar tetrahedral molecule structure. The sulfate reabsorption depends in an undefined manner on the presence of bicarbonate ions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Renal tubule ; Thiosulfate transport ; Na+ coupled transport ; Sulfate transport ; Paraaminohippurate transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using the standing droplet method in the late proximal convolution and simultaneous microperfusion of the peritubular capillaries, the zero net flux transtubular concentration difference of thiosulfate at 45 s was determined, the latter being taken as a measure of active thiosulfate transport. Under control conditions, in the presence of Na+, near zero Δc values were observed. When 1 mmol/l carinamide or paraaminohippurate (PAH) were added to the perfusates significant reabsorptive Δc arose. However, when 7.5 mmol/l sulfate was added to the Na+-free secretory Δc values were observed. Tested under Na+-free conditions, the secretory Δc was not influenced by simultaneously present 5 mmol/l of SO 4 2− but was diminished by 50 mmol/l SO 4 2− . PAH (1 mmol/l), carinamide (0.2 mmol/l) and probenecid (1 mmol/l) decreased the secretory Δc by 48, 65 and 48%, respectively. The PAH secretion was not influenced, when thiosulfate or sulfate up to 50 mmol/l was added to both perfusates. Under Na+-free conditions the Δc of thiosulfate in early loops of the proximal convolution is higher than in late loops, while for PAH this pattern is reversed. Taken together with the previously published inhibition of sulfate reabsorption by thiosulfate the data indicate 1. thiosulfate is reabsorved by the Na+-dependent sulfate transport system and 2. thiosulfate is simultaneously secreted by a carinamide-, probenecid-and PAH-sensitive secretory system. The secretory system might also be shared by sulfate. The thiosulfate net flux is the result of the difference in the activity of the counteracting transporters, located at the luminal and contraluminal cell side. Is is possible that the higher activity of the transporter at one cell side leads to a reversal of the flux through the transporter at the other cell side.
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