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  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (10)
  • Nitrate reductase  (9)
  • 1990-1994  (19)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Tobacco ; Nitrate reductase ; Nitrite reductase ; Regulation ; Mutants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Three tobacco nitrite reductase (NiR) cDNA clones were isolated using spinach NiR cDNA as a probe. Sequence analysis and Southern blot hybridization revealed four genes in tobacco. Two of these genes presumably derived from the ancestral species Nicotiana tomentosiformis, the other two from the ancestor N. sylvestris. Northern blot analysis showed that one gene from each ancestral genome was expressed predominantly in leaves, whilst RNA from the other was detected mostly in roots. The accumulation of both leaf and root NiR mRNAs was induced by nitrate and repressed by nitrate- or ammonium-derived metabolites. In addition, the expression of the root NiR gene was detectable in leaves of a tobacco nitrate reductase (NR)-deficient mutant. Thus, the regulation of expression of tobacco NiR genes is comparable to the regulation of expression of barley NR genes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Nicotiana plumbaginifolia ; Nicotiana tabacum ; GATA-binding factor ; Nitrate reductase ; PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In higher plants, the expression of the nitrate assimilation pathway is highly regulated. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation are currently being elucidated, very little is known about the trans-acting factors that allow expression of the nitrate and nitrite reductase genes which code for the first enzymes in the pathway. In the fungus Neurospora crassa, nit-2, the major nitrogen regulatory gene, activates the expression of unlinked structural genes that specify nitrogen-catabolic enzymes during conditions of nitrogen limitation. The nit-2 gene encodes a regulatory protein containing a single zinc finger motif defined by the C-X2-CX17-C-X2-C sequence. This DNA-binding domain recognizes the promoter region of N. crassa nitrogen-related genes and fragments derived from the tomato nia gene promoter. The observed specificity of the binding suggests the existence of a NIT2-like homolog in higher plants. PCR and cross-hybridization techniques were used to isolate, respectively, a partial cDNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and a full-length cDNA from Nicotiana tabacum. These clones encode a NIT2-like protein (named NTL1 for nit-2-like), characterized by a single zinc finger domain, defined by the C-X2-C-X18-C-X2-C amino acids, and associated with a basic region. The amino acid sequence of NTL1 is 60% homologous to the NIT2 sequence in the zinc finger domain. The Ntl1 gene is present as a unique copy in the diploid N. plumbaginifolia species. The characteristics of Ntl1 gene expression are compatible with those of a regulator of the nitrate assimilation pathway, namely weak nitrate inducibility and regulation by light.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Bud site selection ; Guanine exchange factor ; Ras
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) activity for Ras proteins has been associated with a conserved domain in Cdc25p, Sdc25p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other proteins recently found in other eukaryotes. We have assessed the structure-function relationships between three different members of this family in S. cerevisiae, Cdc25p, Sdc25p and Bud5p. Cdc25p controls the Ras pathway, whereas Bud5p controls bud site localization. We demonstrate that the GEF domain of Sdc25p is closely related to that of Cdc25p. We first constructed a thermosensitive allele of SDC25 by specifically altering amino acid positions known to be changed in the cdc25-1 mutation. Secondly, we constructed three chimeric genes from CDC25 and SDC25, the products of which are as active in the Ras pathway as are the wild-type proteins. In contrast, similar chimeras made between CDC25 and BUD5 lead to proteins that are inactive both in the Ras and budding control pathways. This difference in the ability of chimeric proteins to retain activity allows us to define two subclasses of structurally different GEFs: Cdc25p and Sdc25p are Ras-specific GEFs, and Bud5p is a putative GEF for the Rsr1/Bud1 Rap-like protein.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Translation ; Splicing ; Paromomycin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The MSS51 gene product has been previously shown to be involved in the splicing of the mitochondrial pre-mRNA of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX1). We show here that it is specifically required for the translation of the COX1 mRNA. Furthermore, the paromomycin-resistance mutation (P inf454 supR ) which affects the 15 S mitoribosomal RNA, interferes, directly or indirectly, with the action of the MSS51 gene product. Possible roles of the MSS51 protein on the excision of COX1 introns are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Proline ; DNA sequencing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We report here the isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which exhibit cdc phenotypes. The recessive mutations defined four complementation groups, named ore1, ore2, ore3 and ore4. At the non-permissive temperature, strains bearing these mutations arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The wild-type allele of the gene altered in ore2 mutants was cloned. The nucleotide sequence of a fragment which can complement the mutation showed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein with 286 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 25% identity with that of the Escherichia coli Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, an enzyme of the pathway for the biosynthesis of proline. The ore2 mutants, correspondingly, were found to be capable of growing at the non-permissive temperature on a synthetic medium supplemented with proline. In addition, the chromosomal location of the gene and its restriction map were compatible with those previously reported for the PRO3 gene which encodes the S. cerevisiae Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Transposable element ; Nitrate reductase ; Nicotiana plumbaginifolia ; γ-Ray mutagenesis ; Nucleotide sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract By Northern blot analysis of nitrate reductase-deficient mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, we identified a mutant (mutant D65), obtained after γ-ray irradiation of protoplasts, which contained an insertion sequence in the nitrate reductase (NR) mRNA. This insertion sequence was localized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the first exon of NR and was also shown to be present in the NR gene. The mutant gene contained a 565 by insertion sequence that exhibits the sequence characteristics of a transposable element, which was thus named dTnp1. The dTnp1 element has 14 by terminal inverted repeats and is flanked by an 8-bp target site duplication generated upon transposition. These inverted repeats have significant sequence homology with those of other transposable elements. Judging by its size and the absence of a long open reading frame, dTnp1 appears to represent a defective, although mobile, transposable element. The octamer motif TTTAGGCC was found several times in direct orientation near the 5′ and 3′ ends of dTnp1 together with a perfect palindrome located after the 5′ inverted repeat. Southern blot analysis using an internal probe of dTnp1 suggested that this element occurs as a single copy in the genome of N. plumbaginifolia. It is also present in N. tabacum, but absent in tomato or petunia. The dTnp1 element is therefore of potential use for gene tagging in Nicotiana species.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Co-suppression ; Transgene ; Nitrate reductase ; Tobacco ; Field trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Constructs carrying the entire or part of the tobacco nitrate reductase cDNA (NIA) cloned between the promoter and terminator sequences of the 35S RNA of the cauliflower mosaic virus were introduced into tobacco, in an attempt to improve nitrate assimilation. Several transgenic plants that had elevated NIA mRNA and nitrate reductase (NR) activity were obtained. In addition, a few plants that exhibited a chlorotic phenotype characteristic of NR-deficient mutants were also obtained. One of these plants contained no NIA mRNA, no NR activity and accumulated nitrate. This phenotype was therefore assumed to result from co-suppression of 35S-NIA transgenes and host NIA genes. NR-deficient plants were also found among the progeny of transformants overexpressing NIA mRNA. Genetic analyses indicated that these NR-deficient plants were homozygous for the 35S-NIA transgene, although not all homozygous plants were deficient for NR. The ratio of normal to NR-deficient plants in the progeny of homozygous plants remained constant at each generation, irrespective of the state of expression of the NIA genes (active or inactive) in the previous generation. This ratio also remained unchanged when field trials were performed in two areas of France: Versailles and Bergerac. The analysis of homozygous plants revealed that co-suppression was reversible at some stage of sexual reproduction. Indeed, host genes and transgenes reactivated at each generation, and co-suppression always appeared after a lag period of normal growth, suggesting that the phenomenon is developmentaly regulated. We observed that the triggering of cosuppression was delayed when plants were initially grown under limited light and/or watered with limited nitrate supply (light and nitrate both being required for the expression of the host NIA genes). However, this delay did not affect the final ratio between normal and NR-deficient plants after transfer to nitrate-fertilized fields. Independent transformants exhibited either different co-suppression ratios or no co-suppression at all, irrespective of the transgene copy number, suggesting that genomic sequences surrounding the transgene might play a role in determining co-suppression.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum ; Nitrate reductase ; Retrotransposon ; Transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The effects of Tntl retrotransposon insertion on nitrate reductase (NR) gene transcription have been analyzed in three NR-deficient insertional, mutants of Nicotiana tabacum. In the three mutants, named h9-Nia4, h9-Nia5 and h9-Nia6, Tnt1 was inserted into exon 3, exon 2 and exon 1 of the nia2 NR alloallelle, respectively. The mutants h9-Nia4 and h9-Nia6, which contained Tnt1 insertions that were oriented opposite to the direction of nia2 gene transcription, expressed chimaeric nia2-Tnt1 RNAs, respectively 12 kb and 10 kb long. The size observed in h9-Nia6 was close to the expected size for a full-length hybrid transcript starting and ending under the control of nia2 signals (about 9 kb). The larger transcript found in h9-Nia4 was shown to be due to a failure to splice the nia2 intron 2. The mutant h9-Nia5, which contained a Tntl insertion oriented in parallel with the direction of nia2 transcription expressed two truncated nia2-Tnt1 RNAs, 2 kb and 6.7 kb long. These transcripts arose from termination in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of Tull. Since no full-length hybrid RNA was detected, we suggest that Tnt1 carries efficient termination signals, which are more efficiently recognized in the 3′ LTR than in the 5′ LTR.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Nitrate reductase ; Reporter gene ; Nicotiana tabacum ; Nicotiana plumbaginifolia ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Reporter gene techniques and mutant analysis were used to identify the molecular basis of the regulation of the expression of nitrate reductase (NR) by nitrate and nitrate-, or ammonium-derived metabolites (N-metabolites), in the true diploïd species Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and in the amphidiploïd species Nicotiana tabacum. The N. plumbaginifolia mutant E23 results from the insertion of a Tnt1-like retrotransposon (Tnp2) in the first exon of the single-copy nia gene, which encodes nitrate reductase. One of the resulting transcripts ends in the 5′ LTR (long terminal repeat) sequence of this retrotransposon, and another one in the 3′ LTR. Nitrate and N-metabolites modulate the expression of these truncated transcripts, indicating that intron splicing and termination processes are not essential to these regulatory events. A GUS reporter sequence was transcriptionally linked to the promoter of the nia-1 gene of N. tabacum. This fusion was functional in transient expression assays done with protoplasts derived from mesophyll cells of N. tabacum. However none of the regulatory mechanisms known to affect steady-state levels of the nia-1 transcript were operative under these experimental conditions. Transgenic plants carrying either this fusion or translational fusions of GUS linked to the promoter of either the nia-1 or nia-2 gene of N. tabacum were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transfer. A low proportion of the transgenic plants (22 out of 105 independent transformants) expressed GUS activity although at a low level. Only 4 plants exhibited a detectable level of GUS mRNA. The concentration of this mRNA increased significantly in an NR-deficient background, indicating regulation by N-metabolites. Only 2 plants, however, showed regulation (induction) by nitrate. Attempts to use aux2 or nptII reporter sequences linked to either the nia-1 or nia-2 promoter as marker genes for the selection of regulatory mutants of the nitrate assimilation pathway were unsuccessful because of our inability to isolate transgenic plants in which these reporter genes were properly regulated by nitrate. The implications of these results are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: RVS161 gene ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; stationary phase entry ; viability loss ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In yeast, nutrient starvation leads to entry into stationary phase. Mutants that do not respond properly to starvation conditons have been isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Among them the rvs161 mutant (RVS for Reduced Viability upon Starvation) is sensitive to carbon, nitrogen and sulphur starvation. When these nutrients are depleted in the medium, mutant cells show cellular viability loss with morphological changes. The mutation rvs161-1 is very pleiotropic, and besides the defects in stationary phase entry, the mutant strain presents other alterations: sensitivity to high salt concentrations, hypersensitivity to amino acid analogs, no growth on lactate or acetate medium. The addition of salts or amino acid analogs leads to the same morphological defects observed in starved cells, suggesting that the gene could be implicated mainly in the control of cellular viability. The gene RVS161 was cloned; it codes for a 30,252 daltons protein. No homology was detected with the proteins contained in the databases. Moreover, Southern analysis revealed the presence of other sequences homologous to the RVS161 gene in the yeast genome.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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