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  • Nitrite reductase  (5)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Glutamine synthetase ; Nitrate (as inductor) ; Nitrite reductase ; Phytochrome (as inductor) ; Sinapis (nitrate assimilation)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The extent to which the appearances of nitrite reductase (NIR; EC 1.7.7.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) are coordinated was studied in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings. It was established by immunotitration that the increased activities of NIR and GS in the presence of light and nitrate can be attributed to the de-novo synthesis of enzyme protein. The bulk of the NIR and GS was found in the developing cotyledons. In the absence of nitrate in the growth medium there was no coordinate appearance of NIR and GS. While light strongly stimulated the appearance of GS, the level of NIR was hardly affected and remained low. On the other hand, in the presence of nitrate in the medium the appearances of NIR and GS were strictly coordinated, the GS level being considerably above that of NIR. It is argued that phytochrome-controlled synthesis of GS in the absence of nitrate is part of the mechanism to reassimilate ammonium liberated during proteolysis of storage protein and metabolism of the resulting amino acids, whereas the strictly coordinated synthesis in the presence of light and nitrate indicates the dominance of nitrate assimilation under these circumstances. The fact that the level of GS was always considerably above that of NIR appears to be a safety measure to prevent ammonium accumulation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Gene expression (control points) ; Nitrate ; Nitrite reductase ; Phytochrome ; Sinapis (phytochrome)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite reductase (NIR, EC 1.7.7.1) are the key enzymes of nitrate reduction. It is well established that the appearance of these enzymes is “induced” by nitrate, and it is generally believed that NR is cytosolic while NIR is plastidic. In mustard (Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons we observed two isoforms of NIR (NIR1 and NIR2) using a chromato-focusing technique. Only one of them (NIR2) disappeared when the plastids were damaged by photooxidation in the presence of Norflurazon. It is concluded that NIR2 is plastidic while NIR1 is extraplastidic and not affected by photooxidation of the plastids. Both isoforms appear to have the same molecular weight (60 kilodaltons, kDa). Two distinct translation products which could be immunoprecipitated with NIR antiserum produced against total NIR from mustard were observed which differed slightly in molecular weight (60 versus 63 kDa). The 63-kDa polypeptide was considered to be the precursor of NIR2. While synthesis of NIR protein depended largely on nitrate, the levels of in-vitro-translatable NIR mRNAs were found to be either independent of nitrate and light (NIR1) or controlled by phytochrome only (NIR2). It appears that phytochrome strongly stimulates the level of mRNA while significant enzyme synthesis (NIR2) takes place only in the presence of relatively large amounts of nitrate. Since an increased enzyme level was strictly correlated with an increase of immunoresponsive NIR protein it is improbable that activation of a precursor plays a role. Rather, it is concluded that, in situ, nitrate controls translation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nitrate reductase ; Nitrite reductase ; Phytochrome ; Signal (storage, transduction) ; Sinapis (phytochrome)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Application of nitrate leads to an induction of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite reductase (NIR; EC 1.7.7.1) in the cotyledons of dark-grown mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, and this induction can strongly be promoted by a far-red-light pretreatment — operating through phytochrome — prior to nitrate application. This light treatment is almost ineffective — as far as enzyme appearance is concerned — if no nitrate is given. When nitrate is applied, the stored light signal potentiates the appearance of NR and NIR in darkness, even in the absence of active phytochrome, to the same extent as continuous far-red light. This action of previously stored light signal lasts for approx. 12 h. Storage of the light signal was measured for NR and NIR. The process shows enzyme-specific differences. Storage occurs in the absence as well as in the presence of nitrate, i.e. irrespective of whether or not enzyme synthesis takes place. The kinetics of signal transduction and signal storage indicate that the formation and action of the stored signal are a bypass to the process of direct signal transduction. Signal storage is possibly a means of enabling the plant to maintain the appropriate levels of NR and NIR during the dark period of the natural light/dark cycle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nitrate reductase ; Nitrite reductase ; Phytochrome ; Plastidic signal ; Sinapis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We compared the response of NO 3 - -induced nitrate-reductase (NR) and nitrite-reductase (NIR) levels in virtually carotenoid-free far-red-light-grown mustard (Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons following a photooxidative treatment of the plastids. The cytosolic localization of NR and the plastidic localization of NIR were confirmed with this approach. Emphasis was on a plastidic factor previously postulated to be involved obligatorily in the transcriptional control of nuclear genes coding for proteins destined for the chloroplast. Photooxidative damage of the plastid would be to destroy the ability of the organelle to send off this signal. Dependency of NIR and NR induction by NO 3 - on the plastidic factor is described in detail, and it is concluded that requirement for the plastidic factor is relatively high in the case of NR while factor requirement to allow induction is low in the case of NIR. The data indicate that in the case of NIR the photooxidative damage done to the plastid also affects accumulation of the enzyme directly. Since this effect is absent in the case of cytosolic NR, induction of NR is a particularly suitable system for further molecular studies of the plastidic factor and its mode of action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Glutamine synthetase ; Nitrate (as inductor) ; Nitrite reductase ; Phytochrome (as inductor) ; Sinapis (nitrate assimilation)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The extent to which the appearances of nitrite reductase (NIR; EC 1.7.7.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) are coordinated was studied in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings. It was established by immunotitration that the increased activities of NIR and GS in the presence of light and nitrate can be attributed to the de-novo synthesis of enzyme protein. The bulk of the NIR and GS was found in the developing cotyledons. In the absence of nitrate in the growth medium there was no coordinate appearance of NIR and GS. While light strongly stimulated the appearance of GS, the level of NIR was hardly affected and remained low. On the other hand, in the presence of nitrate in the medium the appearances of NIR and GS were strictly coordinated, the GS level being considerably above that of NIR. It is argued that phytochrome-controlled synthesis of GS in the absence of nitrate is part of the mechanism to reassimilate ammonium liberated during proteolysis of storage protein and metabolism of the resulting amino acids, whereas the strictly coordinated synthesis in the presence of light and nitrate indicates the dominance of nitrate assimilation under these circumstances. The fact that the level of GS was always considerably above that of NIR appears to be a safety measure to prevent ammonium accumulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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