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  • drug utilization  (8)
  • Nitrogenase  (6)
  • Cocaine  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Digoxin ; diuretics ; drug compliance ; drug utilization ; intoxication ; plasma levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma digoxin was measured in all patients receiving digoxin (Lanacrist, Draco) in a well-defined low density population area in Sweden. The number of treated patients (n=75) corresponded to 3 % of the population. The average prescribed daily dose of digoxin was 0.25 mg, and the mean plasma concentration (n=74) was 0.85 (S.D. 0.52) ng/ml. Of the concentrations found 3 % were above and 62 % were below the apparent therapeutic range, 1 – 2 ng/ml. The findings were compared with analyses performed in a hospital laboratory (n=300), the majority being inpatients receiving a similar daily dose. In the latter, 22 % had a plasma level above and about 33 % below the apparent therapeutic range. In the former group no difference in plasma digoxin concentration could be demonstrated between patients treated with digoxin (n=34) and those treated with both digoxin and diuretics (n=40). In a group of eight patients plasma digoxin rose significantly after they were informed of the importance of taking their medicine regularly. Poor compliance with prescribed therapy was even documented in patients in cardiac failure.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: prescribing habits ; psychotropics ; drug utilization ; methodology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prescription of psychotropic drugs at a multidoctor district health centre in northern Sweden in 1973, was analysed by means of problemoriented medical records. Of the 22,000 inhabitants of the district 10,700 consulted the health centre. Psychotropic drugs were prescribed for 11.3% of the patients, corresponding to 5% of the inhabitants of the area. Sixty per cent of the patients received one psychotropic prescription and 90% not more than three. Two-thirds of prescriptions were for women. Hypnotics, sedatives and minor tranquillisers constituted 64% of all prescriptions, major tranquillisers 24% and antidepressants 12%. One fifth of the patients obtained drugs belonging to more than one of the major psychotropic groups during the year. Insomnia, psychoneurosis and depression made up two-thirds of the indications for psychotropic drug therapy. More than thirty different psychotropic drugs were prescribed for the two major indications. There was considerable variation in how the different doctors prescribed drugs for the same indication. Fifty-nine different drug products were prescribed, of which the commonest five constituted more than half of the total number. Individual doctors used from 22 to 38 different psychotropic drugs.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes ; antidiabetic drugs ; drug utilization ; prescribing habits ; geographical differences ; methodology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a comparison of three European countries Sweden utilized more antidiabetic drugs than Northern Ireland and Norway. Swedish wholesale figures for a quarter of a year used for the comparison were based on “daily doses”/1000 inhabitants/day. In order to validate the Swedish figures, a defined geographical area was investigated in 1972–1973, the island of Gotland with 54000 inhabitants. Antidiabetic drugs distributed on a wholesale basis were compared with those distributed on a prescription basis. Additional information was gathered (interviews, questionnaires, hospital records etc.) from a sample of patients (n=54) and their prescribing doctors (n=37). There was good agreement between the wholesale and prescription figures for oral antidiabetic drugs over a three month period (30.0 vs 29.8 “daily doses”/1000 inhabitants/day), but this did not apply to insulin (5.9 vs 7.2) unless a longer time period was studied. The average daily doses prescribed were higher than the theoretically derived “daily doses”. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy was preseribed for 28% of the patients. Thirteen different oral antidiabetics were issued during the study period, four of which constituted 90% of the total. Phenformin, the second most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug was prescribed by 33 doctors, and metformin was prescribed by only 14 doctors. Few patients were treated with diet alone and few doctors could obtain assistance from a dietician. There was little or no evidence that patients failed to comply with the prescriptions, but by contrast they adhered poorly to written dietary instructions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hypertension ; hypertensive therapy ; drug utilization ; therapeutic traditions ; international differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A questionnaire survey based on hypertension case histories was performed among a representative sample of 400 GP's and hospital doctors in Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden, countries having markedly different utilization of antihypertensive drugs. We found a greater propensity to start antihypertensive drug treatment in Northern Ireland than in Norway and Sweden. This was true both in mild diastolic and isolated systolic hypertension. Yet the utilization of antihypertensive drugs in Sweden is about 60% higher than in Northern Ireland and 30% higher than in Norway. Swedish physicians preferred beta-blockers as their first choice to a greater extent than physicians in Northern Ireland and Norway who selected thiazides more often. In general, the choice of drugs agreed with the sales and prescribing patterns in the three countries. Besides providing more insight in therapeutic traditions the study indicates that the lower prescribing of antihypertensive drugs in Northern Ireland, and to some extent in Norway, compared to Sweden, might be due to differences in true or apparent morbidity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes ; insulin ; sulphonylureas ; biguanides ; drug utilization ; geographical differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The consumption of insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs was measured at the gross sales level in Sweden and Norway and at the prescription level in Northern Ireland. “Agreed daily doses” were used as units of comparison, which defined as follows: insulin 40 I.U., tolbutamide 1 g, acetohexamide 500 mg etc. Consumption was expressed as the number of “agreed daily doses” per 1,000 inhabitants per day. This provided a rough estimate of the number of subjects for whom the drug had been prescribed per 1,000 population. The data were collected during the three months April – June 1971. Marked differences in the consumption of antidiabetic drugs were found between the three countries and also between areas within each country. The consumption of insulin was similar in Norway and Northern Ireland (3.5 and 3.9 agreed daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day), but almost twice as high in Sweden. In Norway much lower use was found in certain rural areas. The variation in the consumption of oral antidiabetic drugs was even more marked. Surprisingly, consumption was considerably higher in Sweden (15.8) than in the nearby Norway (7.3), and was even lower in Northern Ireland (4.3). The major use was of sulphonylureas, especially chlorpropamide. Within the countries there was marked regional variation in the choice of individual biguanides and sulphonylureas. The data are discussed in relation to such factors as the incidence of diabetes, the sole use of dietary treatment etc. It is concluded that studies in depth, which link the actual use of drugs by patients to diagnosis, diabetic symptoms and clinical outcome of treatment are necessary in order to explore the reasons behind the marked geographical differences and to define a rational drug policy. However, the methods described in the study may be used for early detection of gross national differences in drug utilization, the further investigation of which may reveal to be of great public health interest.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diabetes ; therapy ; antidiabetic drugs ; therapeutic traditions ; questionnaire survey ; drug utilization ; international differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A questionnaire survey was carried out to explore differences in the approach to treatment of patients with Type II diabetes between physicians in Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden, and to discover to what extent it could account for the three-fold difference in drug use between the countries. A representative sample of 400 physicians in each country was asked to give their opinions on the choice of therapy for three model cases designed to cover the spectrum of treatment — from diet alone to insulin. Significantly more Swedish (65%) than Northern Irish (51%) and Norwegian (52%) doctors suggested diet alone for uncomplicated diabetes recently discovered in a middle aged, overweight man. For symptomatic diabetes in a 76 year old overweight woman with few retinal microaneurysms, the majority of physicians in all three countries suggested treatment with sulphonylureas. Biguanides were here a more common alternative in Northern Ireland than in Scandinavia. For suspected secondary treatment failure in a 63 year old woman with no signs of complications, insulin was suggested by 71% of the Norwegian doctors but only by 44 and 49% of those in Northern Ireland and Sweden, respectively. General practitioners tended to suggest oral treatment earlier and to maintain it longer than hospital physicians. The study has demonstrated significant differences in the approach to treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus between physicians in the three countries. However, the differences were more prominent in the choice of drugs than in the threshold of drug treatment. The results also fit with qualitative but not with quantitative differences in drug sales between the countries, suggesting that important differences may exist in the prevalence of clinically recognized Type II diabetes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: drug utilization ; antibiotics ; paediatric prescribing ; childhood ; Swedish Diagnosis and Therapy Survey ; international comparison ; therapeutic traditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prescribing of medicines for ambulant children below 14 years of age has been compared between Tenerife (Spain) and Sweden. Data obtained from a random sample of 1327 children in a prospective study in Tenerife were compared with data from 3901 children in a Swedish survey linking diagnosis and therapy. Upper respiratory tract infection was the main diagnosis in both countries and antibiotics was the most frequently prescribed drug group (28.2% in Tenerife and 28.8% in Sweden). Half of the children in Sweden did not receive any medication, but only 10% of those in Tenerife did not receive a prescription. Children who received a prescription on average got 1.4 drugs in Sweden and 2.3 in Spain. Amongst the ten most commonly prescribed products in Sweden there were 11 active pharmacological principles as compared to 25 in Spain. These most frequently used preparations accounted for two thirds of all the prescriptions for children in Sweden and one third in Tenerife. In conclusion, drugs were significantly more often used to treat paediatric outpatients in Tenerife than in Sweden. The prescribing physician in Spain also chose a wider variety of drugs and more commonly used fixed combination products.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antibiotics ; gastric surgery ; drug utilization ; bacterial susceptibility ; septic complications ; nosocomial infection ; hospital treatment ; community treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationship between hopsital and catchment area ultilization of antimicrobial agents and the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from primary infections has been studied after 750 gastric operations performed between 1972 and 1986 at the Huddinge University Hospital. Over 80% of the antibiotics were used in the catchment area. Penicillins (G and V) overall were the most commonly used drugs and comprised 37% of the total antibiotic consumption in 1977–1986. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics dominated throughout the period under investigation. No change in the bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents was found over time. Many strains of Klebsiella/Enterobacter and E. coli resistant to ampicillin and tetracyclines were recovered throughout the period under investigation. No aerobic Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to gentamicin. All Bacteroides strains except two were sensitive to cefoxitin. Tetracyclines and ampicillin/amoxycillin were mainly used in the catchment area, and cefoxitin and aminoglycosides were almost exclusively used in the hospital. Antimicrobial agents primarily used for out-patients in the catchment area seemed to have more influence on the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from postoperative infections than agents primarily used in the hospital.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Immunogold labeling ; Iron-superoxide dismutase ; Cyanobiont ; Azolla filiculoides ; Heterocysts ; Nitrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy were used to localize iron-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) in the different cells of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial symbiont present within different leaf cavity groups ofAzolla filiculoides Lam. As evidenced by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, Fe-SOD antibody fromAnabaena cylindrica recognized Fe-SOD in extracts of the cyanobiont and showed the same electrophoretic mobility and pattern as purifiedA. cylindrica Fe-SOD. In vegetative cells of the cyanobiont, Fe-SOD was mainly localized in the thylakoidal membranes and in the outer membrane. The labeling pattern was similar in vegetative cells of the various groups of leaf cavities examined except at the apex where a lower gold particle density was seen. In heterocysts of the leaf cavity groups containing high nitrogenase activity, Fe-SOD labeling was most pronounced and more intense than in vegetative cells. The Fe-SOD label was preferentially located throughout the heterocyst cytoplasm and in the honeycomb regions. In accordance with the decline in nitrogenase activity, the Fe-SOD gold particle density decreased significantly in heterocysts of basal leaf cavity group. The presence of Fe-SOD in regions of high nitrogenase protein levels, and the fact that the pattern of Fe-SOD label parallels that of nitrogenase activity support a role of Fe-SOD in the protection of nitrogenase against superoxide radicals.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cell differentiation ; Immunolocalisation ; Nitrogenase ; Non-heterocystous cyanobacteria ; Trichodesmium ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Trichodesmium is the first described example of a filamentous cyanobacterium without heterocysts that contains cells specialised for nitrogen fixation. The ultrastructure of cells with and without nitrogenase were compared using primarilyTrichodesmium tenue Wille, but alsoT. thiebautii Gomont andT. erythraeum Ehrenberg et Gomont. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the cytoplasm of certain cells was densely labelled with antibodies against Fe-protein (dinitrogenase reductase). Comparative TEM-image analysis revealed that these cells were also distinguished by a denser thylakoid network, dividing the vacuole-like space into smaller units. The nitrogenase-containing cells also exhibited less extensive gas vacuoles as well as fewer and smaller cyanophycin granules compared to cells which lacked nitrogenase. Carboxysomes were present in both cell types in equal proportion. Longitudinal sections showed that cells with nitrogenase were arranged adjacent to each other, and that groups of cells with and without nitrogenase may coexist in the same trichome. The correlation between modifications in ultrastructure and the presence of nitrogenase suggests a new type of cyanobacterial cell specialisation related to nitrogen fixation. The results obtained also question the systematic affiliation of the genusTrichodesmium.
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