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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (21)
  • Nitrones, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of  (2)
  • Humans
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (23)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; microtubules ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sea urchin spermatozoa, eggs, and embryos were labeled with the universal antibody against the intermediate filament proteins (anti-IFA) described by Pruss et al. [Cell 27:419-428, 1981] and with anti-beta-tubulin. Localization of these antibodies was by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Cytoskeleton of unfertilized eggs, prepared according to a procedure adapted from Kane [Exp. Cell Res. 162:495-506, 1986] or as described by Dufresne et al. [Biochem. Cell Biol. 66:780-791, 1988], and reacted with the anti-IFA demonstrate a uniformly stained background except for the nuclear areas, which appear as dark rings. During the first cell cycle, the anti-IFA staining pattern coincides with that of spindle-associated tubulin but not with the cortical pattern of microtubules. Swimming embryos reacted with the anti-IFA show a labeling located on the cilia and within the cytoplasm of each individual cell of the larva. In spermatozoa, the labeling occurs all along the flagellae. Immunoblots of proteins from eggs and embryos reveal one major protein of 117 kDa and sometimes a component of 66 kDa, both of which cosediment with tubulin during the isolation procedure of microtubules described by Vallee and Bloom [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:6259-6263, 1983]. These data show that proteins homologous to the intermediate filament proteins reported in vertebrate cells are present in both gametes of sea urchins. The specific localization ofthese proteins in the spindle, the flagella, and the cilia suggest that they may play a significant role in the organization and function of the microtubular lattice of the spermatozoa and of the embryo.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; phosphorylation ; sea urchin embryos ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) on the length of the cell cycle and on the state of phosphorylation of a putative intermediate filament protein, p117, have been studied in sea urchin embryos. Embryos were transferred into sea water containing 600 μM 6-DMAP at 0.5, 2 or 5 min after insemination, and incubated for 30 or 90 min. The effects of 6-DMAP on cell cycle length were studied by determining the time required for completion of mitosis upon return of the embryos in normal sea water. In all instances, except for the embryos transferred 0.5 min after insemination (AI) and incubated for 30 min, the duration of the M phase was shortened compared to controls, being faster in the embryos incubated for 90 minutes compared to the 30 min incubation period. However, embryos transferred 0.5 min AI have a longer M-phase than those transferred 2 minutes or later after fertilization, suggesting that between 0.5 and 2 min after fertilization, critical phosphorylating events occur which affect the commitment of the cells to enter M-phase.To study the pattern of p117 phosphorylation during the cell cycle, the eggs were transferred 2 minutes after fertilization in presence of 600 μM 6-DMAP and with 200 μCi/ml of 32P-orthophosphate. Analyses of 32P-labelled proteins after exposure of SDS-PAGE gels and their corresponding blots suggested that phosphorylation of p117 greatly increases at the time of pronuclear fusion, and then declines slightly at prophase-metaphase. This decrease is markedly enhanced when the cells are treated with 6-DMAP during metaphase in order to induce a premature breakdown of the mitotic apparatus. A causal link is suggested between the level of phosphorylation of p117 and its state of assembly. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 7 (1989), S. 28-34 
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Indomethacin ; Bone ingrowth ; Porous titanium implant ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effects of indomethacin, a nonsteriodal antiinflammatory agent, on bone ingrowth were studied using a rabbit animal model and a porous cylindrical implant system. Bone ingrowth was found to be independent of pore size in the range tested (0.6-1.0 mm). In the control (placebo-treated) group, there was a significant increase in bone ingrowth between the 2- and 8-week groups of animals. However, in the indomethacin-treated group, there was no increase in bone ingrowth with time.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans ; Nephrogenesis ; Glomerular basement membranes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: In vivo labeling of infant rat and mouse glomerular basement membranes (GBMs) with polyclonal anti-laminin IgGs results in binding across the full widths of GBMs at all stages of development. These stages include the pre-fusion, double basement membranes found beneath endothelial cells and podocytes in early glomeruli, and the subepithelial matrix outpockets where newly synthesized GBM is spliced into fused basement membrane during glomerular maturation. Identical binding results are obtained either with peroxidase or post-embedding immunogold techniques. Although injected cationized ferritin also binds abundantly to all developing GBMs, it quickly disappears and, 24 hours after injection, is generally absent from GBMs but remains within mesangial matrices. Injection of newborn mice with monoclonal anti-laminin IgGs results in dense labeling of pre-fusion GBMs but post-fusion GBMs and subepithelial outpockets are weak-negative. Although masking can not be excluded, these results indicate that laminin epitopes are removed during GBM fusion and splicing, either by isoform substitution or proteolytic processing. The loss of bound cationized ferritin is believed to occur mainly through rapid turnover of GBM proteoglycans. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The arteries and veins of the heart of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) are described from the dissection of nine specimens. The arterial distribution is composed of the basic mammalian pattern of two major vessels, the left and right coronary arteries, which supply the cardiac tissue. The venous drainage is provided by three major systems which are the great, middle, and small cardiac veins. The vascular characteristics of the heart of the beluga whale are the marked sinuosity of both coronary arteries and their main branches, the numerous large interarterial anastomoses between major vessels, and the duplication of vessels in parallel branches. These characteristics are discussed in functional terms and correlated with the diving ability of the species.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Knee joints from adult, juvenile, hatchling, and embryonic (full term) American alligators were dissected to reveal the cruciate ligaments and the medial and lateral menisci. Two anterior cruciate (major and minor), a posterior cruciate, an intermeniscal, and a meniscofemoral ligament were identified. In addition, we found a fourth internal ligament which has not been reported previously. Menisci and ligaments from left knees were fixed in formalin and processed for routine histological observation. Those from right knees were stained in bulk by using a gold chloride method and were either frozen and sectioned at 100 m̈m on a sliding microtome or were processed for paraffin sections at 30 m̈m. The morphology of the collagenous, cartilaginous, and vascular constituents of the tissues was similar to that of the dog, cat, and human. Nerve fibers were observed in all tissues sampled. Structures resembling Golgi tendon organs and Pacinian corpuscles were identified, reinforcing the theory that neural elements within cruciate ligaments and menisci may provide afferent input that affects the function of the knee joint.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Spirodela ; thylakoids ; atrazine ; diuron ; chloroplast ; ultrastructure ; 32,000-dalton protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cultivation of Spirodela oligorrhiza (Kurtz) Hegelm on a sublethal dose of atrazine results in a higher linolenic to linoleic acid ratio in the thylakoid membrane lipids, less starch, more osmiophilic globules, and a reduced stroma lamellar system. Also, the grana become randomly oriented and contain more numerous and elongated lamellae. These alterations in the lipid composition and ultrastructure of the chloroplast resemble those previously observed in triazine-resistant weed biotypes and in chloroplasts developed under low light. Thylakoid membranes from atrazine-adapted plants revealed an additional high-affinity binding constant for [14C]-diuron but the number of diuron binding sites actually decreased by 20 times compared to controls. The 32,000-dalton membrane protein of the chloroplast is synthesized actively, but its breakdown appears decreased compared to control plants. The adaptive reorganization of thylakoid components may be a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of a functional interaction of the proteins and lipids of the photosystem II complex.
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  • 8
  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined histochemically (light microscopy-LM) and cytochemically (electron microscopy-EM) the secretory epithelial cells in the tracheobronchial mucosa of sheep. Six morphologically distinct, granule-containing cells have been described, on the basis of their morphology and airway distribution: four mucous (M1-M4), serous (SC), and Clara (CC). Stereological and morphometric data indicated that M3, M4, SC, and CC were distinctly different from each other and from M1 and M2 cells. Mucous cells M1 and M2 differed in granule morphology. Samples of tracheas, sixth-generation bronchi, distal bronchi, and terminal bronchioles of 18 adult sheep were examined. At the LM level, methacrylate sections were reacted with an alcian blue (pH 2.5), periodic acid Schiff (PAS) sequence to differentiate neutral from acidic glycoconjugates (GC), and a high-iron diamine (HID), alcian blue sequence to differentiate sulfated from nonsulfated (sialated) GC. At the EM level the periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide localized hexose-rich, neutral GC. Dialyzed iron (DI) and high-iron diamine localized carboxylated and sulfated GC, respectively. Granules of all but Clara cells were PAS-positive. All mucous cells contained acidic groups, but only M1 and M4 cells had LM-detectable sulfated GC. At the ultrastructural level, minimal but discernible HID and LID reaction product was observed on granule profiles of M2, M3, and SC, indicating acidic and sulfated GC not detected at the LM level. Histochemically, the sheep tracheobronchial epithelium was more similar to that of humans than some other examined mammalian species.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins - DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (gaINAc), BSAI (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), UEA I (Ulex europeus) - for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2 -fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in lumminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. Inp proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of 〈 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells containde weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.
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