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  • CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY  (4)
  • Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology  (4)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 3 (1982), S. 443-451 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: miniature swine ; ELF ; 60-Hz electric field ; behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that rats, given the choice, will spend more time out of a 60-Hz electric field than in it at field strengths ≥ 75 kV/m. This paper describes research to examine the relevance of these data to a different species, the pig. Miniature pigs that had been exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 30 kV/m for 20 h/day, 7 days/week for as long as 6 months, were tested for their preference for the presence or absence of the field during a 23.5-h period. Similar to earlier results with rats, miniature pigs spent more time out of the electric field than in it during the sleeping period.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; ELF ; 60 Hz ; guinea pig ; dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Short-circuit currents, surface electric fields, and axial current densities were measured in electrically grounded guinea pigs exposed to a uniform, vertical, ELF electric field. These data are 70-110% of corresponding values obtained in grounded rats exposed to the same electric field.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: ELF ; magnetic fields ; exposure systems ; biological effects ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Magnetic field systems were added to existing electric field exposure apparatuses for exposing cell suspensions in vitro and small animals in vivo. Two horizontally oriented, rectangular coils, stacked one directly above the other, have opposite electric currents. This configuration minimizes leakage fields and allows sham- and field-exposure systems to be placed in the same room or incubator. For the in vitro system, copper plates formed the loop-pair, with up to 900 A supplied by a 180:1 transformer. Electric fields were supplied via electrodes at the ends of cell-culture tubes, eight of which can be accommodated by each exposure system. Two complete systems are situated in an incubator to allow simultaneous sham and field exposure up to 1 mT. For the in vivo system, four pairs of 0.8 × 2.7-m coils made of copper bus bar are employed. This arrangement is energized from the power grid via a 30:1 transformer; horizontal magnetic flux densities up to 1 mT can be generated. Pairs of electrode plates spaced 30.5 cm apart provide electric field exposure of up to 130 kV/m. Four systems with a capacity of 48 rats each are located in one room. For both the in vitro and in vivo systems, magnetic exposure fields are uniform to within ± 2.5%, and sham levels are at least 2,500-fold lower than exposure levels. Potential confounding factors, such as heating and vibration, were examined and found to be minimal.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: 60-Hz electric fields ; induced body currents ; aversive behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Thirty-two male rats were tested in two replicates of an experiment to determine whether body currents induced by 60-Hz magnetic fields might lead to avoidance behavior comparable to that which results from exposure to strong 60-Hz electric fields. The test apparatus was a two-compartment Plexiglas® shuttlebox enclosed in a sound-attenuating plywood chamber, which in turn was encompassed by two copper bus bars that, when energized, served as a source of 60-Hz magnetic fields. Location of the rat, and traverse activity in the shuttlebox were monitored by nine infra-red photo detectors equally spaced along the length of the apparatus. Rats were divided into 2 groups: 1 group of rats (n = 8 per group per replicate) was sham exposed while rats in the other group (n = 8 per group per replicate) were exposed to a 3.03 mT (30.3 G), 60-Hz magnetic field whenever they traversed to or were located on the side (L or R) predetermined as the exposed side. To control artifact incident to side preference, the side exposed (L or R) was alternated over the exposed rats. Each rat was tested individually in a 1-h session. A 2-factor ANOVA (exposed vs. control, replicate 1 vs. replicate 2) failed to reveal any significant effects due to either factor or to an interaction between factors. These data demonstrate that rats do not avoid exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields at a flux density of 3.03 mT and further imply that the avoidance by rats of high level 60-Hz electric fields is mediated by something other than the internal body currents induced by the exposure. 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Keywords: RISK ; ALLELES ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; EPISTASIS ; IDENTIFIES 2 ; ERAP1
    Abstract: Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P 〈 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P 〈 10(-4)) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P 〈 10(-8). Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P 〉 10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24242184
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  • 6
    Keywords: RISK ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ALLELES ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; IDENTIFIES 2
    Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24548884
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  • 7
    Keywords: RISK ; ALLELES ; SUBTYPES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: Data were combined from 37 studies, including 40,972 invasive cases, 1,398 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 46,334 controls, all of white European ancestry, as well as 3,007 invasive cases and 2,337 controls of Asian ancestry. Associations overall and by tumor invasiveness and histopathology were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: For white Europeans, the per-allele OR associated with 5p12-rs10941679 was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14, P = 7 x 10(-18)) for invasive breast cancer and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.21, P = 0.03) for DCIS. For Asian women, the estimated OR for invasive disease was similar (OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.99-1.15, P = 0.09). Further analyses suggested that the association in white Europeans was largely limited to progesterone receptor (PR)-positive disease (per-allele OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.12-1.20, P = 1 x 10(-18) vs. OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.99-1.07, P = 0.2 for PR-negative disease; P(heterogeneity) = 2 x 10(-7)); heterogeneity by ER status was not observed (P = 0.2) once PR status was accounted for. The association was also stronger for lower grade tumors [per-allele OR (95% CI) = 1.20 (1.14-1.25), 1.13 (1.09-1.16), and 1.04 (0.99-1.08) for grade 1, 2, and 3/4, respectively; P(trend) = 5 x 10(-7)]. CONCLUSION: 5p12 is a breast cancer susceptibility locus for PR-positive, lower grade breast cancer. IMPACT: Multicenter fine-mapping studies of this region are needed as a first step to identifying the causal variant or variants.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21795498
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  • 8
    Keywords: RISK ; VARIANTS ; METAANALYSIS ; ALLELES ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; IDENTIFIES 2 ; 5P12
    Abstract: Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46,450 cases and 42,600 controls) and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 (rs1053338, per-allele OR=1.07, 95%CI=1.04-1.10, P=2.9x10-6), AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR=1.05, 95%CI=1.03-1.07, P=1.7x10-6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.07-1.12, P=5.1x10-17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine GWAS: for ATXN7-K264R, OR=1.07 (95%CI=1.05-1.10, P=1.0x10-8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR=1.05 (95%CI=1.04-1.07, P=2.0x10-10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known genome-wide association study (GWAS) hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24943594
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