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  • 1
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Housane ; Norcaradiene ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cycloaddition of a Very Reactive Cyanovinylcarbene with Benzene and 3,4-Dichlorocyclobutene. Molecular and Crystal Structure of 2,3-Dichloro-5-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5-housanecarbonitrile and 7-(1-Cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-7-norcaradienecarbonitrileThe cyanovinylcarbene 2 has been generated by photolysis of 3,3-dimethyl-3H-pyrazole-4,5-dicarbonitril (1) and the cycloaddition products with benzene and with 3,4-dichlorocyclobutene have been isolated. The molecular structures of the cycloaddition products 7-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-7-norcaradienecarbonitrile (3) and 2,3-dichloro-5-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5-housanecarbonitrile (4) were determined by X-ray analyses. The bridging bond of the bicyclo[2.1.0]pentane group in 4 is shortened to 1.515 Å by the electronic interaction of this group with the cyano substituent. The vinyl substituent has no influence because of perpendicular orientation.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: simulated moving bed technology ; chiral separation ; cellulose triacetate ; preparative scale liquid chromatography ; racemic epoxide ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The feasibility of using simulated moving bed technology (SMB) for chiral separation on cellulose triacetate is demonstrated on the preparative scale: 1 kg of a chiral epoxide has been separated. On comparing SMB technology with conventional liquid chromatography it turns out that the main advantage of SMB lies in the significant reduction of mobile phase consumption. The process design for SMB is made theoretically and the predictions are confirmed by our pilot study. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: propranolol ; enantiomers ; immunogen synthesis ; selective antibody ; ELISA ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A selective antibody to (S)-propranolol enantiomer was produced in rabbits by immunization with a new conjugate of N-aminopropylpropranolol-albumin. A hapten was first prepared by condensing (S)-propranolol or the racemate with 3-bromopropylphthalimide followed by hydrazinolysis, and the resulting compound conjugated to serum albumin by means of a glutaraldehyde- or carbodiimide-mediated reaction. Rabbits were immunized, and titres and specificity of antibodies were determined by ELISA. The antibodies obtained were tested with (S)-, (R)-, (R, S)-propranolol, and other structural analogs. Selective (S)-antibodies recognized (S)-propranolol 20 times more avidly than (R)-isomer while an antiserum against (R, S)-propranolol recognized both (S)- and (R)-isomers to about the same degree. ©1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: NSAID ; chirality ; enantiomers ; protein binding ; equilibrium dialysis ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Equilibrium dialysis was used to study in vitro the enantioselective binding of R, S, and racemic ketoprofen at physiological pH and temperature in human serum albumin (HSA) (1, 20, and 40 g/liter) and in plasma. The binding of enantiomers in a racemic mixture was studied to see the effect of each isomer on the other's interaction with the protein. The free fractions were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The binding of ketoprofen enantiomers to albumin was enantioselective, depending on both drug and protein concentrations. Enantioselectivity was observed in plasma too but was the opposite of that in HSA at 40 g/liter. The percentage of each isomer unbound was higher in the racemic mixture than with the isomer alone. The displacement of probes specific for HSA sites I and II, studied by spectrofluorimetry, suggests that all three preparations of ketoprofen are bound mainly to site I and secondarily to site II. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 5 (1993), S. 414-418 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: gallopamil ; enantiomers ; protein binding ; serum ; α1-acid glycoprotein ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The protein binding of the enantiomers of gallopamil has been investigated in solutions of human serum albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein and serum. Over the range of concentrations attained after oral gallopamil administration, the binding of both enantiomers to albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and serum proteins was independent of gallopamil concentration. The binding to both human serum albumin (40 g/liter) [range of fraction bound (fb) R: 0.624 to 0.699; S: 0.502 to 0.605] and α1-acid glycoprotein (0.5 g/liter) (range of fb R: 0.530 to 0.718; S: 0.502 to 0.620) was stereoselective, favoring the (R)-enantiomer (predialysis gallopamil concentrations 2.5 to 10,000 ng/ml). When the enantiomers (predialysis gallopamil concentration 10 ng/ml) were studied separately in drug-free serum samples from six healthy volunteers the fraction of (S)-gallopamil bound (fb: 0.943 ± 0.016) was lower (P 〈 0.05) than that of (R)-gallopamil (fb: 0.960 ± 0.010). The serum protein binding of both (R)- and (S)-gallopamil was unaffected by their optical antipodes (fb R: 0.963 ± 0.011; S: 0.948 ± 0.015) indicating that at therapeutic concentrations a protein binding enantiomer-enantiomer interaction does not occur. The protein binding of (R)- and (S)-gallopamil ex vivo 2 h after single dose oral administration of 50 mg pseudoracemic gallopamil (fb R: 0.960 ± 0.010: predialysis [R] 6.9 to 35.3 ng/ml; S: 0.943 ± 0.016: predialysis [S] 9.5 to 30.7 ng/ml) was comparable to that observed in vitro in drug-free serum. Gallopamil metabolites formed during first-pass following oral administration, therefore, do not influence the protein binding of (R)- or (S)-gallopamil. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral ; cyclodextrin ; drug ; electrophoresis ; micellar electrokinetic ; resolution ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) were applied to the resolution of racemic nonsteroidal antiaromatase drugs and intermediates. Successful results were obtained in both modes using α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), or 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) as chiral selectors. Depending on the structure of the solute, one of the cyclodextrins was generally better suited for resolution of the racemate. The basic solutes were analyzed under HPCE conditions, whereas the nonionizable compounds such as glutethimide (Doriden®) were analyzed in MECC mode. For the azole-type antiaromatase Fadrozole, both HPCE and MECC modes could be used to achieve the separation of the enantiomers. The influence of experimental factors such as pH, the presence of organic modifier, temperature, the micelle concentration, and the concentration of the chiral selector is also discussed on the basis of the results obtained with some chiral barbiturates. The possibility of analyzing the enantiomers directly in plasma samples was also demonstrated. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: An infrared spectroscopic study of the 1 : 1 hydrogen-bond association of amidates with both methanol and 4-fluorophenol showed that the site of complexation is the oxygen of the amidate function. However the formamidate HCON2Me3 forms a second 1 : 1 complex on the nitrogen of the amidate. The formation constants of the hydrogen-bond complexes of the amidates with the reference hydrogen-bond donor 4-FC6H4OH indicate that the amidates are stronger hydrogen-bond bases than are amides and amide vinylogues. As such, the amidates constitute the strongest carbonyl bases hitherto investigated on the hydrogen-bond basicity scale.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Fungal metabolites ; Spiro acetals ; Antifungal agents ; Palmarumycins C ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Twelve new spiro acetal metabolites, the palmarumycins C1-C8, (1-8), C11 (11), C12 (12), C15 (15), C16 (16), and three known representatives (10, 13, 14) of this new class of antibiotics were isolated from Coniothyrium sp. The compounds show antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal activity at concentrations of 10-6-10-4 mol/l. The structures of palmarumycin C2 (2), palmarumycin C3 (3), and palmarumycin C5 (5) were confirmed by X-ray structure analysis.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Fungal metabolites ; Spiro acetals ; Antifungal agents ; Palmarumycins CP ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Four new penta- and hexacyclic antifungal and antibacterial metabolites, the palmarumycins CP1-CP4 (1-4), were isolated from Coniothyrium palmarum. In these structurally unique antibiotics, a 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene unit is connected by a spiroacetal to another partially reduced naphthalene unit. The structure of the pentacyclic palmarumycin CP3 (3) was confirmed by X-ray structure analysis.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 4 (1990), S. 55-61 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: tributyltin ; seawater contamination ; Mediterranean coast ; France ; analysis ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products were measured in seawater samples in 1988 and 1989 at different locations of the French Mediterranean coast, including harbours, marinas and mariculture areas. Higher levels of TBT contamination were found in harbour (2-833 ng dm-3) and marina waters (18-736 ng dm-3) compared with mariculture areas (〈2-111 ng dm-3). Geographical distribution of TBT degradation products showed that a TBT hot spot finally results in a diffuse contamination of dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), even far distant from input areas.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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